Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Energy Harvesting and Systems

Materials, Mechanisms, Circuits and Storage

Editor-in-Chief: Lublow, Michael

4 Issues per year

Online
ISSN
2329-8766
See all formats and pricing

Self-Biased Magnetoelectric Composites: An Overview and Future Perspectives

Yuan Zhou
  • Corresponding author
  • Bio-inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
  • Email:
/ Deepam Maurya
  • Bio-inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
/ Yongke Yan
  • Bio-inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
/ Gopalan Srinivasan
  • Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48409, USA
/ Eckhard Quandt
  • Inorganic Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kiel 24143, Germany
/ Shashank Priya
  • Bio-inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
  • Email:
Published Online: 2015-07-15 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ehs-2015-0003

Abstract

Self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) composites, defined as materials that enable large ME coupling under external AC magnetic field in the absence of DC magnetic field, are an interesting, challenging and practical field of research. In comparison to the conventional ME composites, eliminating the need of DC magnetic bias provides great potential towards device miniaturization and development of components for electronics and medical applications. In this review, the current state-of-the-art of the different self-biased structures, their working mechanisms, as well as their main characteristics are summarized. Further, the nature and requirement of the self-biased magnetoelectric response is discussed with respect to the specific applications. Lastly, the remaining challenges as well as future perspective of this research field are discussed.

Keywords: self-biased; magnetoelectric; energy harvesting

References

  • Ali, M., P. Adie, C. H. Marrows, D. Greig, B. J. Hickey, and R. L. Stamps. 2007. “Exchange Bias Using a Spin Glass.” Nature Materials 6 (1):70–5.

  • Allibe, J., I. C. Infante, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, E. Jacquet, C. Deranlot, M. Bibes, and A. Barthelemy. 2009. “Coengineering of Ferroelectric and Exchange Bias Properties in BiFeO3 Based Heterostructures.” Applied Physics Letters 95 (18):182503.

  • Bai, X., Y. Wen, J. Yang, P. Li, J. Qiu, and Y. Zhu. 2012. “A Magnetoelectric Energy Harvester with the Magnetic Coupling to Enhance the Output Performance.” Journal of Applied Physics 111 (7):07A938–3.

  • Ban, Z. G., S. P. Alpay, and J. V. Mantese. 2003. “Fundamentals of Graded Ferroic Materials and Devices.” Physical Review B 67 (18):184104.

  • Berkowitz, A. E., and K. Takano. 1999. “Exchange Anisotropy – A Review.” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 200 (1–3):552–70. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-8853(99)00453-9.

  • Binek, C., and B. Doudin. 2005. “Magnetoelectronics with Magnetoelectrics.” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 17 (2):L39–44.

  • Binek, C., A. Hochstrat, X. Chen, P. Borisov, W. Kleemann, and B. Doudin. 2005. “Electrically Controlled Exchange Bias for Spintronic Applications.” Journal of Applied Physics 97:10C514. doi: 10.1063/1.1853836. [Crossref]

  • Borisov, P., A. Hochstrat, X. Chen, W. Kleemann, and C. Binek. 2005. “Magnetoelectric Switching of Exchange Bias.” Physical Review Letters 94:117203. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.117203. [Crossref]

  • Brown, W. F., R. M. Hornreich, and S. Shtrikman. 1968. “Upper Bound on the Magnetoelectric Susceptibility.” Physical Review 168 (2):574–7.

  • Bruno, P., and C. Chappert. 1991. “Oscillatory Coupling between Ferromagnetic Layers Separated by a Nonmagnetic Metal Spacer.” Physical Review Letters 67 (12):1602–5. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.67.1602. [Crossref]

  • Bruno, P., and C. Chappert. 1992. “Ruderman-Kittel Theory of Oscillatory Interlayer Exchange Coupling.” Physical Review B 46 (1):261–70. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.46.261. [Crossref]

  • Buchel’nikov, V. D., V. S. Romanov, and V. G. Shavrov. 1998. “Oscillating Polaritons in Antiferromagnetics with the Magnetoelectric Effect.” Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics 43 (1):80–4.

  • Burdin, D. A., D. V. Chashin, N. A. Ekonomov, L. Y. Fetisov, Y. K. Fetisov, G. Sreenivasulu, and G. Srinivasan. 2014. “Nonlinear Magneto-electric Effects in Ferromagnetic-Piezoelectric Composites.” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 358–359:98–104. doi: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2014.01.062. [Crossref]

  • Burgt, C. M. van der. 1953. “Dynamical Physical Parameters of the Magnetostrictive Excitation of Extensional and Torsional Vibrations in Ferrites.” Philips Research Reports 8:91–132.

  • Cain, W. C., and M. H. Kryder. 1990. “Investigation of the Exchange Mechanism in NiFe‐TbCo Bilayers.” Journal of Applied Physics 67 (9):5722–4. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.346107.

  • Chen, Y. J., S. M. Gillette, T. Fitchorov, L. P. Jiang, H. B. Hao, J. H. Li, X. X. Gao, A. Geiler, C. Vittoria, and V. G. Harris. 2011. “Quasi-One-Dimensional Miniature Multiferroic Magnetic Field Sensor with High Sensitivity at Zero Bias Field.” Applied Physics Letters 99:042505.

  • Chen, L., P. Li, Y. Wen, and P. Wang. 2012. “Highly Zero-Biased Magnetoelectric Response in Magnetostrictive/Piezoelectric Composite.” Journal of Applied Physics 112 (2):024504. doi: 10.1063/1.4737404. [Crossref]

  • Chen, L., P. Li, Y. Wen, and Y. Zhu. 2013. “Note: High Sensitivity Self-Bias Magnetoelectric Sensor with Two Different Magnetostrictive Materials.” Review of Scientific Instruments 84 (6):066101. doi: 10.1063/1.4808322. [Crossref]

  • Chu, Y. H., L. W. Martin, M. B. Holcomb, M. Gajek, S. J. Han, Q. He, N. Balke, C. H. Yang, D. Lee, W. Hu, et al. 2008. “Electric-Field Control of Local Ferromagnetism Using a Magnetoelectric Multiferroic.” Nature Materials 7 (6):478–82.

  • Chun, S. H., Yi S. Chai, B. G. Jeon, H. J. Kim, Y. S. Oh, I. Kim, H. Kim, B. Jo. Jeon, So. Y. Haam, J.-Y. Park, et al. 2012. “Electric Field Control of Nonvolatile Four-State Magnetization at Room Temperature.” Physical Review Letters 108:177201. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.177201. [Crossref]

  • Clark, A. E. 1980. Ferromagnetic Materials, Vol. 1. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

  • Dai, X., Y. Wen, P. Li, J. Yang, and M. Li. 2011. “Energy Harvesting from Mechanical Vibrations Using Multiple Magnetostrictive/Piezoelectric Composite Transducers.” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 166 (1):94–101. doi: 10.1016/j.sna.2010.12.025. [Crossref]

  • Dai, X., Y. Wen, P. Li, J. Yang, and G. Zhang. 2009. “Modeling, Characterization and Fabrication of Vibration Energy Harvester Using Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D Composite Transducer.” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 156 (2):350–8. doi: 10.1016/j.sna.2009.10.002. [Crossref]

  • Dho, J., X. Qi, H. Kim, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, and M. G. Blamire. 2006. “Large Electric Polarization and Exchange Bias in Multiferroic BiFeO3.” Advanced Materials 18 (11):1445–8. doi: 10.1002/adma.200502622. [Crossref]

  • Dieny, B., V. S. Speriosu, S. S. P. Parkin, B. A. Gurney, D. R. Wilhoit, and D. Mauri. 1991. “Giant Magnetoresistance in Soft Ferromagnetic Multilayers.” Physical Review B 43 (1):1297–300. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.43.1297. [Crossref]

  • Dong, S., J. Zhai, J. Li, and D. Viehland. 2006. “Near-Ideal Magnetoelectricity in High-Permeability Magnetostrictive/Piezofiber Laminates with a (2–1) Connectivity.” Applied Physics Letters 89 (25):252904. doi: 10.1063/1.2420772. [Crossref]

  • Dong, S. X., J. Y. Zhai, J. F. Li, D. Viehland, and S. Priya. 2008. “Multimodal System for Harvesting Magnetic and Mechanical Energy.” Applied Physics Letters 93:103511. doi: 10.1063/1.2982099. [Crossref]

  • Dong, S., J. Zhai, J.-F. Li, D. Viehland, and E. Summers. 2007. “Strong Magnetoelectric Charge Coupling in Stress-Biased Multilayer-Piezoelectric∕Magnetostrictive Composites.” Journal of Applied Physics 101 (12):124102. doi: 10.1063/1.2748712. [Crossref]

  • Eerenstein, W., N. D. Mathur, and J. F. Scott. 2006. “Multiferroic and Magnetoelectric Materials.” Nature 442 (7104):759–65. doi: 10.1038/nature05023. [Crossref]

  • Fang, F., Y. T. Xu, W. P. Zhu, and W. Yang. 2011. “A Four-State Magnetoelectric Coupling for Embedded Piezoelectric/Magnetic Composites.” Journal of Applied Physics 110:084109. doi: 10.1063/1.3653293. [Crossref]

  • Fetisov, L. Y., Y. K. Fetisov, G. Sreenivasulu, and G. Srinivasan. 2013. “Nonlinear Resonant Magnetoelectric Interactions and Efficient Frequency Doubling in a Ferromagnetic-Ferroelectric Layered Structure.” Journal of Applied Physics 113 (11):116101.

  • Fiebig, M. 2005. “Revival of the Magnetoelectric Effect.” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 38 (8):R123–52. doi: 10.1088/0022-3727/38/8/r01. [Crossref]

  • Folen, V. J., G. T. Rado, and E. W. Stalder. 1961. “Anisotropy of the Magnetoelectric Effect in Cr2O3.” Physical Review Letters 6 (11):607–8.

  • Freitas, P. P., J. L. Leal, L. V. Melo, N. J. Oliveira, L. Rodrigues, and A. T. Sousa. 1994. “Spin-Valve Sensors Exchange-Biased by Ultrathin TbCo Films.” Applied Physics Letters 65 (4):493–5. doi: 10.1063/1.112304. [Crossref]

  • Gajek, M., M. Bibes, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, J. Fontcuberta, A. Barthelemy, and A. Fert. 2007. “Tunnel Junctions with Multiferroic Barriers.” Nature Materials 6 (4):296–302.

  • Gao, J. Q., D. Hasanyan, Y. Shen, Y. J. Wang, J. F. Li, and D. Viehland. 2012. “Giant Resonant Magnetoelectric Effect in Bi-layered Metglas/Pb(Zr,Ti)O-3 Composites.” Journal of Applied Physics 112 (10):104101.

  • Gillette, S. M., T. Fitchorov, O. Obi, L. Jiang, H. Hao, S. Wu, Y. Chen, and V. G. Harris. 2014. “Effects of Intrinsic Magnetostriction on Tube-Topology Magnetoelectric Sensors with High Magnetic Field Sensitivity.” Journal of Applied Physics 115 (17):17C734. doi: 10.1063/1.4868326. [Crossref]

  • Gillette, S. M., A. L. Geiler, D. Gray, D. Viehland, C. Vittoria, and V. G. Harris. 2011. “Improved Sensitivity and Noise in Magneto-Electric Magnetic Field Sensors by Use of Modulated AC Magnetostriction.” Magnetics Letters, IEEE 2:2500104–2500104. doi: 10.1109/LMAG.2011.2151178. [Crossref]

  • Giri, S., M. Patra, and S. Majumdar. 2011. “Exchange Bias Effect in Alloys and Compounds.” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 23 (7):073201.

  • Gokemeijer, N. J., T. Ambrose, and C. L. Chien. 1997. “Long-Range Exchange Bias across a Spacer Layer.” Physical Review Letters 79 (21):4270–3. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.4270. [Crossref]

  • Gonzalez, J. M., M. I. Montero, V. Raposo, and A. Hernando. 2000. “On the Relationship between the Hysteresis Loop Shift and the Dipolar Interactions in Hard-Soft Nanocomposite Samples.” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 221 (1–2):187–95. doi: 10.1016/s0304-8853(00)00526-6. [Crossref]

  • Greve, H., E. Woltermann, H.-J. Quenzer, B. Wagner, and E. Quandt. 2010. “Giant Magnetoelectric Coefficients in (Fe[Sub 90]Co[Sub 10])[Sub 78]Si[Sub 12]B[Sub 10]-AlN Thin Film Composites.” Applied Physics Letters 96 (18):182501. doi: 10.1063/1.3377908. [Crossref]

  • Gruyters, M. 2005. “Spin-Glass-Like Behavior in COO Nanoparticles and the Origin of Exchange Bias in Layered COO/Ferromagnet Structures.” Physical Review Letters 95 (7):077204.

  • Gubbiotti, G., G. Carlotti, M. Madami, J. Weston, P. Vavassori, and G. Zangari. 2002. “Exchange Coupling in FeTaN-FeSM-FeTaN Multilayers: A Kerr Effect Study.” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 38 (5):2779–81. doi: 10.1109/tmag.2002.803238. [Crossref]

  • He, J., L. Zhou, D. L. Zhao, and X. L. Wang. 2009. “Hysteresis Loop Shift Behavior of CoFeSiB Amorphous Ribbons.” Journal of Materials Research 24 (4):1607–10.

  • Hempstead, R. D., S. Krongelb, and D. A. Thompson. 1978. “Unidirectional Anisotropy in Nickel-Iron Films by Exchange Coupling with Anti-Ferromagnetic Films.” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 14 (5):521–3. doi: 10.1109/tmag.1978.1059838. [Crossref]

  • Hill, N. A. 2000. “Why Are There so Few Magnetic Ferroelectrics?.” Journal of Physical Chemistry B 104 (29):6694–709. doi: 10.1021/jp000114x. [Crossref]

  • Hong, H., Y. G. Wang, K. Bi, and F. G. Chen. 2013. “Resonant Magnetoelectric Effects in Ni/Pb(Zr, Ti)O3/FeCo Trilayered Semicircular Composites.” Surface Review and Letters 20 (01):1350004. doi: 10.1142/s0218625x13500042. [Crossref]

  • Ibach, H. 1997. “The Role of Surface Stress in Reconstruction, Epitaxial Growth and Stabilization of Mesoscopic Structures.” Surface Science Reports 29 (5–6):195–263. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5729(97)00010-1.

  • Islam, R. A., V. Bedekar, N. Poudyal, J. P. Liu, and S. Priya. 2008. “Magnetoelectric Properties of Core-Shell Particulate Nanocomposites.” Journal of Applied Physics 104 (10):104111.

  • Islam, R. A., H. Kim, S. Priya, and H. Stephanou. 2006. “Piezoelectric Transformer Based Ultrahigh Sensitivity Magnetic Field Sensor.” Applied Physics Letters 89 (15):152908.

  • Islam, R. A., and S. Priya. 2006. “Magnetoelectric Properties of the Lead-Free Cofired BaTiO3-(Ni0.8zn0.2)Fe2O4 Bilayer Composite.” Applied Physics Letters 89 (15):152911.

  • Israel, C., N. D. Mathur, and J. F. Scott. 2008. “A One-Cent Room-Temperature Magnetoelectric Sensor.” Nature Materials 7 (2):93–4. doi: 10.1038/nmat2106. [Crossref]

  • Jahns, R., A. Piorra, E. Lage, C. Kirchhof, D. Meyners, J. L. Gugat, M. Krantz, M. Gerken, R. Knöchel, E. Quandt, et al. 2013. “Giant Magnetoelectric Effect in Thin-Film Composites.” Journal of the American Ceramic Society 96 (6):1673–81. doi: 10.1111/jace.12400. [Crossref]

  • Jungho, R., A. V. Carazo, K. Uchino, and H.-E. Kim. 2001. “Magnetoelectric Properties in Piezoelectric and Magnetostrictive Laminate Composites.” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 40:4948–51.

  • Kambale, R. C., W.-Ha. Yoon, D.-S. Park, J.-J. Choi, C. -W. Ahn, J.-W. Kim, B.-D. Hahn, D.-Y. Jeong, B. C. Lee, G.-S. Chung, et al. 2013. “Magnetoelectric Properties and Magnetomechanical Energy Harvesting From Stray Vibration and Electromagnetic Wave by Pb(Mg1/3nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Single Crystal/Ni Cantilever.” Journal of Applied Physics 113 (20):204108. doi: 10.1063/1.4804959. [Crossref]

  • Kamentsev, K. E., Y. K. Fetisov, and G. Srinivasana. 2006. “Low-Frequency Nonlinear Magnetoelectric Effects in a Ferrite-Piezoelectric Multilayer.” Applied Physics Letters 89 (14):142510.

  • Kendall, D., and A. R. Piercy. 1993. “The Frequency Dependence of Eddy Current Losses in Terfenol‐D.” Journal of Applied Physics 73 (10):6174–6. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.352686.

  • Kimura, T., T. Goto, H. Shintani, K. Ishizaka, T. Arima, and Y. Tokura. 2003. “Magnetic Control of Ferroelectric Polarization.” Nature 426 (6962):55–8. doi: 10.1038/nature02018. [Crossref]

  • Kirchhof, C., M. Krantz, I. Teliban, R. Jahns, S. Marauska, B. Wagner, R. Knöchel, M. Gerken, D. Meyners, and E. Quandt. 2013. “Giant Magnetoelectric Effect in Vacuum.” Applied Physics Letters 102 (23):232905. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4810750.

  • Kools, J. C. S. 1996. “Exchange-Biased Spin-Valves for Magnetic Storage.” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 32 (4):3165–84. doi: 10.1109/20.508381. [Crossref]

  • Lage, E., C. Kirchhof, V. Hrkac, L. Kienle, R. Jahns, R. Knochel, E. Quandt, and D. Meyners. 2012. “Exchange Biasing of Magnetoelectric Composites.” Nature Materials 11 (6):523–9.

  • Lage, E., N. O. Urs, V. Röbisch, I. Teliban, R. Knöchel, D. Meyners, J. McCord, and E. Quandt. 2014. “Magnetic Domain Control and Voltage Response of Exchange Biased Magnetoelectric Composites.” Applied Physics Letters 104 (13):132405. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4870511.

  • Lage, E., F. Woltering, E. Quandt, and D. Meyners. 2013. “Exchange Biased Magnetoelectric Composites for Vector Field Magnetometers.” Journal of Applied Physics 113 (17):17C725. doi: 10.1063/1.4798791. [Crossref]

  • Laletin, V. M., N. Paddubnaya, G. Srinivasan, C. P. De Vreugd, M. I. Bichurin, V. M. Petrov, and D. A. Filippov. 2005. “Frequency and Field Dependence of Magnetoelectric Interactions in Layered Ferromagnetic Transition Metal-Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate.” Applied Physics Letters 87 (22):222507. doi: 10.1063/1.2137450. [Crossref]

  • Laletin, U., G. Sreenivasulu, V. M. Petrov, T. Garg, A. R. Kulkarni, N. Venkataramani, and G. Srinivasan. 2012. “Hysteresis and Remanence in Magnetoelectric Effects in Functionally Graded Magnetostrictive-Piezoelectric Layered Composites.” Physical Review B 85 (10):104404.

  • Laukhin, V., X. Marti, V. Skumryev, D. Hrabovsky, F. Sanchez, M. V. Garcia-Cuenca, C. Ferrater, M. Varela, U. Lueders, J. F. Bobo, et al. 2007. “Electric Field Effects on Magnetotransport Properties of Multiferroic Py/YMnO3/Pt Heterostructures.” Philosophical Magazine Letters 87 (3–4):183–91. doi: 10.1080/09500830701210011. [Crossref]

  • Laukhin, V., V. Skumryev, X. Marti, D. Hrabovsky, F. Sanchez, M. V. Garcia-Cuenca, C. Ferrater, M. Varela, U. Lueders, J. F. Bobo, et al. 2006. “Electric-Field Control of Exchange Bias in Multiferroic Epitaxial Heterostructures.” Physical Review Letters 97 (22):227201. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.227201. [Crossref]

  • Li, M. H., Y. J. Wang, J. Q. Gao, D. Gray, J. F. Li, and D. Viehland. 2012. “Dependence of Magnetic Field Sensitivity of a Magnetoelectric Laminate Sensor Pair on Separation Distance: Effect of Mutual Inductance.” Journal of Applied Physics 111 (3):033923.

  • Li, M., Y. Wang, J. Gao, J. Li, and D. Viehland. 2012. “Enhanced Magnetoelectric Effect in Self-Stressed Multi-Push-Pull Mode Metglas/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Metglas Laminates.” Applied Physics Letters 101 (2):022908. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4737179.

  • Li, M. H., Y. J. Wang, Y. Shen, J. Q. Gao, J. F. Li, and D. Viehland. 2013. “Structural Dependence of Nonlinear Magnetoelectric Effect for Magnetic Field Detection by Frequency Modulation.” Journal of Applied Physics 114 (14):144501.

  • Li, M., Z. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Li, and D. Viehland. 2013. “Giant Magnetoelectric Effect in Self-Biased Laminates under Zero Magnetic Field.” Applied Physics Letters 102 (8):082404. doi: 10.1063/1.4794056. [Crossref]

  • Li, P., Y. M. Wen, and L. X. Bian. 2007. “Enhanced Magnetoelectric Effects in Composite of Piezoelectric Ceramics, Rare-Earth Iron Alloys, and Ultrasonic Horn.” Applied Physics Letters 90 (2):022503.

  • Lin, M. T., C. H. Ho, C. R. Chang, and Y. D. Yao. 2001. “Temperature-Dependence of Interlayer Exchange Bias Coupling in NiO/Cu/NiFe.” Journal of Applied Physics 89 (11):7540–2.

  • Lin, T., C. Tsang, R. E. Fontana, and J. K. Howard. 1995. “Exchange-Coupled Ni-Fe/Fe-Mn, Ni-Fe/Ni-Mn and NiO/Ni-Fe Films for Stabilization of Magnetoresistive Sensors.” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 31 (6):2585–90.

  • Liu, Y. T., J. Jiao, J. S. Ma, B. Ren, L. Y. Li, X. Y. Zhao, H. S. Luo, and L. Shi. 2013. “Frequency Conversion in Magnetoelectric Composites for Quasi-Static Magnetic Field Detection.” Applied Physics Letters 103 (21):212902.

  • Liu, W. C., C. L. Mak, K. H. Wong, C. Y. Lo, S. W. Or, W. Zhou, A. Hauser, F. Y. Yang, and R. Sooryakumar. 2008. “Magnetoelectric and Dielectric Relaxation Properties of the High Curie Temperature Composite Sr(1.9)Ca(0.1)NaNb(5)O(15)-CoFe(2)O(4).” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 41 (12):125402.

  • Lu, C., P. Li, Y. Wen, A. Yang, W. He, J. Zhang, J. Yang, J. Wen, Y. Zhu, and M. Yu. 2013. “Investigation of Magnetostrictive/Piezoelectric Multilayer Composite with a Giant Zero-Biased Magnetoelectric Effect.” Applied Physics A 113 (2):413–21. doi: 10.1007/s00339-013-7557-y. [Crossref]

  • Lu, C. J., P. Li, Y. M. Wen, A. C. Yang, C. Yang, D. C. Wang, W. He, and J. T. Zhang. 2014. “Zero-Biased Magnetoelectric Composite Fe73.5cu1nb3si13.5B9/Ni/Pb(Zr1-x,Tix)O-3 for Current Sensing.” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 589:498–501. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.12.038.

  • Lu, C., P. Li, Y. Wen, A. Yang, C. Yang, J. Yang, W. He, J. Zhang, and W. Li. 2014. “Dynamic Magnetostrictive Properties of Magnetization-Graded Ferromagnetic Material and Application in Magnetoelectric Composite.” Journal of Applied Physics 115 (17):17C726. doi: 10.1063/1.4866089. [Crossref]

  • Ma, J., J. Hu, Z. Li, and C. W. Nan. 2011a. “Recent Progress in Multiferroic Magnetoelectric Composites: From Bulk to Thin Films.” Advanced Materials 23 (9):1062–87. doi: 10.1002/adma.201003636. [Crossref]

  • Ma, J., Z. Li, Y. H. Lin, and C. W. Nan. 2011b. “A Novel Frequency Multiplier Based on Magneto Electric Laminate.” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 323 (1):101–3.

  • Mandal, S. K., G. Sreenivasulu, V. M. Petrov, S. Bandekar, and G. Srinivasan. 2011. “Functionally Graded Piezomagnetic and Piezoelectric Bilayer for Magnetic Field Sensors- Magnetoelectric Interactions at Low Frequency at Bending Modes.” Advances and Applications in Electroceramics 226:223–30.

  • Mandal, S. K., G. Sreenivasulu, V. M. Petrov, and G. Srinivasan. 2010. “Flexural Deformation in a Compositionally Stepped Ferrite and Magnetoelectric Effects in a Composite with Piezoelectrics.” Applied Physics Letters 96 (19):192502.

  • Mandal, S. K., G. Sreenivasulu, V. M. Petrov, and G. Srinivasan. 2011. “Magnetization-Graded Multiferroic Composite and Magnetoelectric Effects at Zero Bias.” Physical Review B 84 (1):014432.

  • Mantese, J. V., A. L. Micheli, N. W. Schubring, R. W. Hayes, G. Srinivasan, and S. P. Alpay. 2005. “Magnetization-Graded Ferromagnets: The Magnetic Analogs of Semiconductor Junction Elements.” Applied Physics Letters 87 (8):082503.

  • Marti, X., F. Sanchez, J. Fontcuberta, M. V. Garcia-Cuenca, C. Ferrater, and M. Varela. 2006. “Exchange Bias between Magnetoelectric YMnO3 and Ferromagnetic SrRuO3 Epitaxial Films.” Journal of Applied Physics 99 (8):08P302. doi: 10.1063/1.2167333. [Crossref]

  • Martin, L. W., Y.-H. Chu, M. B. Holcomb, M. Huijben, Pu. Yu, S.-J. Han, D. Lee, S. X. Wang, and R. Ramesh. 2008. “Nanoscale Control of Exchange Bias with BiFeO3 Thin Films.” Nano Letters 8 (7):2050–5. doi: 10.1021/nl801391m. [Crossref]

  • Martin, L. W., Y. H. Chu, Q. Zhan, R. Ramesh, S. J. Han, S. X. Wang, M. Warusawithana, and D. G. Schlom. 2007. “Room Temperature Exchange Bias and Spin Valves Based on BiFeO3/SrRuO3/SrTiO3/Si (001) Heterostructures.” Applied Physics Letters 91 (17):172513.

  • Martin, L., S. P. Crane, Y. H. Chu, M. B. Holcomb, M. Gajek, M. Huijben, C. H. Yang, N. Balke, and R. Ramesh. 2008. “Multiferroics and Magnetoelectrics: Thin Films and Nanostructures.” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 20 (43):434220. doi: 10.1088/0953-8984/20/43/434220. [Crossref]

  • McDannald, A., M. Staruch, G. Sreenivasulu, C. Cantoni, G. Srinivasan, and M. Jain. 2013. “Magnetoelectric Coupling in Solution Derived 3–0 Type PbZr0.52ti0.48O3:XCoFe2O4 Nanocomposite Films.” Applied Physics Letters 102 (12):122905. doi: 10.1063/1.4799174.

  • Meiklejohn, W. H., and C. P. Bean. 1957. “New Magnetic Anisotropy.” Physical Review 105 (3):904–13.

  • Mewes, T., B. F. P. Roos, S. O. Demokritov, and B. Hillebrands. 2000. “Oscillatory Exchange Bias Effect in FeNi/Cu/FeMn and FeNi/Cr/FeMn Trilayer Systems.” Journal of Applied Physics 87 (9):5064–6. doi: 10.1063/1.373249. [Crossref]

  • Michael, L., L. Vera, S. Peter, B. Francis, Z. Michael, M. Hiwa, V. Alexander, J. Van Bael Margriet, T. Kristiaan, V. André, et al. 2014. “Multiferroic BaTiO3–BiFeO3 Composite Thin Films and Multilayers: Strain Engineering and Magnetoelectric Coupling.” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 47 (13):135303.

  • Nan, C. W. 1993. “Physics of Inhomogeneous Inorganic Materials.” Progress in Materials Science 37 (1):1–116. doi: 10.1016/0079-6425(93)90004-5. [Crossref]

  • Nan, C. W., M. I. Bichurin, S. X. Dong, D. Viehland, and G. Srinivasan. 2008. “Multiferroic Magnetoelectric Composites: Historical Perspective, Status, and Future Directions.” Journal of Applied Physics 103 (3):031101. doi: 10.1063/1.2836410. [Crossref]

  • Nan, C. W., G. Liu, Y. H. Lin, and H. D. Chen. 2005. “Magnetic-Field-Induced Electric Polarization in Multiferroic Nanostructures.” Physical Review Letters 94 (19):197203.

  • Nogués, J., and I. K. Schuller. 1999. “Exchange Bias.” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 192 (2):203–32. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-8853(98)00266-2.

  • Onuta, T. -D., Yi. Wang, C. J. Long, and I. Takeuchi. 2011. “Energy Harvesting Properties of All-Thin-Film Multiferroic Cantilevers.” Applied Physics Letters 99 (20):203506. doi: 10.1063/1.3662037. [Crossref]

  • Osborn, J. A. 1945. “Demagnetizing Factors of the General Ellipsoid.” Physical Review 67 (11):351.

  • Pan, D., J. Lu, Y. Bai, W. Chu, and L. J. Qiao. 2008. “Shape Demagnetization Effect on Layered Magnetoelectric Composites.” Chinese Science Bulletin 53 (14):2124–8.

  • Pan, D. A., J. J. Tian, S. G. Zhang, J. S. Sun, A. A. Volinsky, and L. J. Qiao. 2009. “Geometry Effects on Magnetoelectric Performance of Layered Ni/PZT Composites.” Materials Science and Engineering B-Advanced Functional Solid-State Materials 163 (2):114–19.

  • Park, J. H., H. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. G. Park, and S. G. Lee. 2008. “Strain-Mediated Magnetoelectric Coupling in BaTiO3-Co Nanocomposite Thin Films.” Applied Physics Letters 92 (6):062908.

  • Parkin, S. S. P., R. Bhadra, and K. P. Roche. 1991. “Oscillatory Magnetic Exchange Coupling through Thin Copper Layers.” Physical Review Letters 66 (16):2152–5. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.66.2152. [Crossref]

  • Petrie, J., D. Gray, D. Viehland, G. Sreenivasulu, G. Srinivasan, S. Mandal, and A. S. Edelstein. 2012. “Shifting the Operating Frequency of Magnetoelectric Sensors.” Journal of Applied Physics 111 (7):07C714.

  • Petrie, J., D. Viehland, D. Gray, S. Mandal, G. Sreenivasulu, G. Srinivasan, and A. S. Edelstein. 2011. “Enhancing the Sensitivity of Magnetoelectric Sensors by Increasing the Operating Frequency.” Journal of Applied Physics 110 (12):124506. doi: 10.1063/1.3668752. [Crossref]

  • Petrov, V. M., and G. Srinivasan. 2008. “Enhancement of Magnetoelectric Coupling in Functionally Graded Ferroelectric and Ferromagnetic Bilayers.” Physical Review B 78 (18):184421.

  • Prellier, W., M. P. Singh, and P. Murugavel. 2005. “The Single-Phase Multiferroic Oxides: From Bulk to Thin Film.” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 17 (30):R803–R832. doi: 10.1088/0953-8984/17/30/r01. [Crossref]

  • Priya, S., R. Islam, S. Dong, and D. Viehland. 2007. “Recent Advancements in Magnetoelectric Particulate and Laminate Composites.” Journal of Electroceramics 19 (1):149–66. doi: 10.1007/s10832-007-9042-5. [Crossref]

  • Ramesh, R., and N. A. Spaldin. 2007. “Multiferroics: Progress and Prospects in Thin Films.” Nature Materials 6 (1):21–9. doi: 10.1038/nmat1805. [Crossref]

  • Rivas, M., J. A. Garcia, M. Tejedor, E. Bertran, and J. G. Cespedes. 2005. “Influence of the Dipolar Interactions in the Magnetization Reversal Asymmetry of Hard-Soft Magnetic Ribbons.” Journal of Applied Physics 97 (2):023903.

  • Ryu, J., A. V. Carazo, K. Uchino, and H. E. Kim. 2001. “Piezoelectric and Magnetoelectric Properties of Lead Zirconate Titanate/Ni-Ferrite Particulate Composites.” Journal of Electroceramics 7 (1):17–24.

  • Ryu, H., P. Murugavel, J. H. Lee, S. C. Chae, T. W. Noh, Y. S. Oh, H. J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Jang, M. Kim, et al. 2006. “Magnetoelectric Effects of Nanoparticulate Pb(Zr0.52ti0.48)O-3-NiFe2O4 Composite Films.” Applied Physics Letters 89 (10):102907.

  • Sander, D., H. Meyerheim, S. Ferrer, and J. Kirschner. 2003. “Stress, Strain and Magnetic Anisotropy: All Is Different in Nanometer Thin Films.” In Advances in Solid State Physics, edited by B. Kramer, 547–62. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.

  • Schmid, H. 1994. Ferroelectrics 162:317.

  • Schubring, N. W., J. V. Mantese, A. L. Micheli, A. B. Catalan, and R. J. Lopez. 1992. “Charge Pumping and Pseudopyroelectric Effect in Active Ferroelectric Relaxor-Type Films.” Physical Review Letters 68 (11):1778–81.

  • Scott, J. F. 2007. “Data Storage – Multiferroic Memories.” Nature Materials 6 (4):256–7.

  • Scott, J. F. 2012. “Applications of Magnetoelectrics.” Journal of Materials Chemistry 22 (11):4567. doi: 10.1039/c2jm16137k. [Crossref]

  • Shen, Y., J. Gao, Y. Wang, P. Finkel, J. Li, and D. Viehland. 2013. “Piezomagnetic Strain-Dependent Non-linear Magnetoelectric Response Enhancement by Flux Concentration Effect.” Applied Physics Letters 102 (17):172904. doi: 10.1063/1.4803660. [Crossref]

  • Shen, Y., J. Gao, Y. Wang, J. Li, and D. Viehland. 2014. “High Non-Linear Magnetoelectric Coefficient in Metglas/PMN-PT Laminate Composites under Zero Direct Current Magnetic Bias.” Journal of Applied Physics 115 (9):094102. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4867516.

  • Shen, L. G., M. H. Li, J. Q. Gao, Y. Shen, J. F. Li, D. Viehland, X. Zhuang, M. L. C. Sing, C. Cordier, S. Saez, et al. 2011. “Magnetoelectric Nonlinearity in Magnetoelectric Laminate Sensors.” Journal of Applied Physics 110 (11):114510.

  • Shi, Z., C. P. Wang, X. J. Liu, and C. W. Nan. 2008. “A Four-State Memory Cell Based on Magnetoelectric Composite.” Chinese Science Bulletin 53 (14):2135–8. doi: 10.1007/s11434-008-0275-8. [Crossref]

  • Shi, M., G. Y. Yu, H. L. Su, R. Z. Zuo, Y. D. Xu, G. Wu, and L. Wang. 2011. “Magnetoelectric Properties of CoFe2O4-Pb(Zr0.52ti0.48)O-3 Multilayered Composite Film via Sol-Gel Method.” Journal of Materials Science 46 (13):4710–14.

  • Soinski, M. 1990. “Demagnetization Effect of Rectangular and Ring-Shaped Samples Made of Electric Sheets Placed in a Stationary Magnetic Field.” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 39 (5):704–10.

  • Spaldin, N. A., and M. Fiebig. 2005. “The Renaissance of Magnetoelectric Multiferroics.” Science 309 (5733):391–2. doi: 10.1126/science.1113357. [Crossref]

  • Sreenivasulu, G., V. Hari Babu, G. Markandeyulu, and B. S. Murty. 2009. “Magnetoelectric Effect of (100−x)BaTiO3–(x)NiFe1.98O4(X=20–80 Wt %) Particulate Nanocomposites.” Applied Physics Letters 94 (11):112902. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3095600.

  • Sreenivasulu, G., S. K. Mandal, S. Bandekar, V. M. Petrov, and G. Srinivasan. 2011. “Low-Frequency and Resonance Magnetoelectric Effects in Piezoelectric and Functionally Stepped Ferromagnetic Layered Composites.” Physical Review B 84 (14):144426.

  • Srinivasan, G. 2010. “Magnetoelectric Composites.” In Annual Review ofMaterials Research, Vol. 40, 153–78. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.

  • Srinivasan, G., E. T. Rasmussen, J. Gallegos, R. Srinivasan, Y. I. Bokhan, and V. M. Laletin. 2001. “Magnetoelectric Bilayer and Multilayer Structuresof Magnetostrictive and Piezoelectric Oxides.” Physical Review B 64 (21). Art. no. 214408, 1–6.

  • Srinivasan, G., E. T. Rasmussen, B. J. Levin, and R. Hayes. 2002. “Magnetoelectric Effects in Bilayers and Multilayers of Magnetostrictive and Piezoelectric Perovskite Oxides.” Physical Review B 65:134402.

  • Suchtelen, V. J. 1972. “Product Properties: A New Application of Composite Materials.” Philips Research Reports 27 (1):28–37.

  • Sudakar, C., R. Naik, G. Lawes, J. V. Mantese, A. L. Micheli, G. Srinivasan, and S. P. Alpay. 2007. “Internal Magnetostatic Potentials of Magnetization-Graded Ferromagnetic Materials.” Applied Physics Letters 90 (6):062502.

  • Tahmasebi, K., A. Barzegar, J. Ding, T. S. Herng, A. Huang, and S. Shannigrahi. 2011. “Magnetoelectric Effect in Pb(Zr0.95Ti0.05)O-3 and CoFe2O4 Heteroepitaxial Thin Film Composite.” Materials and Design 32 (4):2370–3.

  • Tiercelin, N., A. Talbi, V. Preobrazhensky, P. Pernod, V. Mortet, K. Haenen, and A. Soltani. 2008. “Magnetoelectric Effect Near Spin Reorientation Transition in Giant Magnetostrictive-Aluminum Nitride Thin Film Structure.” Applied Physics Letters 93 (16):162902.

  • Tokunaga, T., M. Taguchi, T. Fukami, Y. Nakaki, and K. Tsutsumi. 1990. “Study of Interface Wall Energy in Exchange-Coupled Double-Layer Film.” Journal of Applied Physics 67 (9):4417–19. doi: 10.1063/1.344917. [Crossref]

  • Tong, B., X. Yang, Z. Guo, K. Li, J. Ouyang, G. Lin, and S. Chen. 2013. “Preparation and Characterization of AlN/FeCoSiB Magnetoelectric Thin Film Composites.” Ceramics International 39 (6):6853–9. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.02.019.

  • Tong, B., X. Yang, J. Ouyang, G. Lin, Y. Zhang, and S. Chen. 2014. “Magnetoelectric Response of AlN/[(Fe90co10)78Si12B10  +  Terfenol-D] Composite Films.” Journal of Applied Physics 115 (17):17D904. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4863487.

  • Torrejon, J., L. Kraus, K. R. Pirota, G. Badini, and M. Vazquez. 2007. “Magnetostatic Coupling in Soft/Hard Biphase Magnetic Systems Based on Amorphous Alloys.” Journal of Applied Physics 101 (9):09N105.

  • Vandenbo, J., D. R. Terrell, R. A. J. Born, and H. Giller. 1974. “In Situ Grown Eutectic Magnetoelectric Composite-Material.1. Composition and Unidirectional Solidification.” Journal of Materials Science 9 (10):1705–9.

  • Vandenboomgaard, J., and R. A. J. Born. 1978. “Sintered Magnetoelectric Composite-Material BaTiO3-Ni(Co, Mn)Fe2O4.” Journal of Materials Science 13 (7):1538–48.

  • Vandenboomgaard, J., A. Vanrun, and J. Vansuchtelen. 1976. “Magnetoelectricity in Piezoelectric-Magnetostrictive Composites.” Ferroelectrics 10 (1–4):295–8.

  • Vanderzaag, P. J., R. M. Wolf, A. R. Ball, C. Bordel, L. F. Feiner, and R. Jungblut. 1995. “A Study of the Magnitude of Exchange Biasing in [111] Fe3O4/COO Bilayers.” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 148 (1–2):346–8.

  • Vaz, C. A. F., J. Hoffman, C. H. Anh, and R. Ramesh. 2010. “Magnetoelectric Coupling Effects in Multiferroic Complex Oxide Composite Structures.” Advanced Materials 22 (26–27):2900–18.

  • Wan, J. G., J. M. Liu, H. L. W. Chand, C. L. Choy, G. H. Wang, and C. W. Nan. 2003. “Giant Magnetoelectric Effect of a Hybrid of Magnetostrictive and Piezoelectric Composites.” Journal of Applied Physics 93 (12):9916–19.

  • Wan, J. G., X. W. Wang, Y. J. Wu, M. Zeng, Y. Wang, H. Jiang, W. Q. Zhou, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Liu. 2005. “Magnetoelectric CoFe2O4–Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Composite Thin Films Derived by a Sol-Gel Process.” Applied Physics Letters 86 (12):122501. doi: 10.1063/1.1889237. [Crossref]

  • Wan, J.–G., H. Zhang, X. Wang, D. Pan, J.–M. Liu, and G. Wang. 2006. “Magnetoelectric CoFe[Sub 2]O[Sub 4]-Lead Zirconate Titanate Thick Films Prepared by a Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Assisted Sol-Gel Method.” Applied Physics Letters 89 (12):122914. doi: 10.1063/1.2357589. [Crossref]

  • Wang, Y., D. Gray, D. Berry, J. Gao, M. Li, J. Li, and D. Viehland. 2011. “An Extremely Low Equivalent Magnetic Noise Magnetoelectric Sensor.” Advanced Materials 23 (35):4111–14. doi: 10.1002/adma.201100773. [Crossref]

  • Wang, Y., J. M. Hu, Y. H. Lin, and C. W. Nan. 2010. “Multiferroic Magnetoelectric Composite Nanostructures.” NPG Asia Materials 2 (2):61–8.

  • Wang, K. F., J. M. Liu, and Z. F. Ren. 2009. “Multiferroicity: The Coupling between Magnetic and Polarization Orders.” Advances in Physics 58 (4):321–448. doi: 10.1080/00018730902920554. [Crossref]

  • Wang, J., J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, et al. 2003. “Epitaxial BiFeO3 Multiferroic Thin Film Heterostructures.” Science 299 (5613):1719–22.

  • Wang, Y., Y. Shen, J. Gao, M. Li, J. Li, and D. Viehland. 2013. “Nonlinear Magnetoelectric Response of a Metglas/Piezofiber Laminate to a High-Frequency Bipolar AC Magnetic Field.” Applied Physics Letters 102 (10):102905. doi: 10.1063/1.4795307. [Crossref]

  • Wu, J., Z. Shi, J. Xu, N. Li, Z. Zheng, H. Geng, Z. Xie, and L. Zheng. 2012. “Synthesis and Room Temperature Four-State Memory Prototype of Sr3Co2Fe24O41 Multiferroics.” Applied Physics Letters 101 (12):122903. doi: 10.1063/1.4753973.

  • Xing, Z. P., J. Y. Zhai, J. Q. Gao, J. F. Li, and D. Viehland. 2009. “Magnetic-Field Sensitivity Enhancement by Magnetoelectric Sensor Arrays.” IEEE Electron Device Letters 30 (5):445–7.

  • Yan, Y. K., Y. Zhou, and S. Priya. 2013. “Giant Self-Biased Magnetoelectric Coupling in Co-fired Textured Layered Composites.” Applied Physics Letters 102 (5):052907. doi: 10.1063/1.4791685. [Crossref]

  • Yan, Y. K., Y. Zhou, and S. Priya. 2014a. “Enhanced Magnetoelectric Effect in Longitudinal-Longitudinal Mode Laminate with Cofired Interdigitated Electrodes.” Applied Physics Letters 104 (3):032911.

  • Yan, Y., Y. Zhou, and S. Priya. 2014b. “Enhanced Magnetoelectric Effect in Longitudinal-Longitudinal Mode Laminate with Cofired Interdigitated Electrodes.” Applied Physics Letters 104 (3):032911. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4862183.

  • Yang, S. C., C. W. Ahn, K. H. Cho, and S. Priya. 2011. “Self-Bias Response of Lead-Free (1-x)[0.948 K0.5Na0.5NbO3-0.052 LiSbO3]-xNi(0.8)Zn(0.2)Fe(2)O(4)-Nickel Magnetoelectric Laminate Composites.” Journal of the American Ceramic Society 94 (11):3889–99.

  • Yang, S. C., K. H. Cho, C. S. Park, and S. Priya. 2011. “Self-Biased Converse Magnetoelectric Effect.” Applied Physics Letters 99 (20):202904.

  • Yang, S. C., C. S. Park, K. H. Cho, and S. Priya. 2010. “Self-Biased Magnetoelectric Response in Three-Phase Laminates.” Journal of Applied Physics 108 (9):093706.

  • Yang, J., Yu. Me. i Wen, P. Li, and X. L. Bai. 2011. “A Magnetoelectric-Based Broadband Vibration Energy Harvester for Powering Wireless Sensors.” Science China-Technological Sciences 54 (6):1419–27. doi: 10.1007/s11431-011-4367-3. [Crossref]

  • Yuan, F. T., J. K. Lin, Y. D. Yao, and S. F. Lee. 2010. “Exchange Bias in Spin Glass (FeAu)/NiFe Thin Films.” Applied Physics Letters 96 (16):162502.

  • Zeng, M., J. G. Wan, Y. Wang, H. Yu, J. M. Liu, X. P. Jiang, and C. W. Nan. 2004. “Resonance Magnetoelectric Effect in Bulk Composites of Lead Zirconate Titanate and Nickel Ferrite.” Journal of Applied Physics 95 (12):8069–73.

  • Zhai, J., Z. Xing, S. Dong, J. Li, and D. Viehland. 2008. “Magnetoelectric Laminate Composites: An Overview.” Journal of the American Ceramic Society 91 (2):351–8. doi: 10.1111/j.1551-2916.2008.02259.x. [Crossref]

  • Zhang, J., P. Li, Y. Wen, W. He, J. Yang, M. Li, A. Yang, C. Lu, and W. Li. 2014. “High-Sensitivity Laminated Magnetoelectric Sensors Without Bias in Composite of Positive/Negative Giant Magnetostrictive Materials and Piezoelectric Single Crystals.” Journal of Applied Physics 115 (17):17E517. doi: 10.1063/1.4865973. [Crossref]

  • Zhang, J., P. Li, Y. Wen, W. He, A. Yang, and C. Lu. 2013. “Giant Self-Biased Magnetoelectric Response with Obvious Hysteresis in Layered Homogeneous Composites of Negative Magnetostrictive Material Samfenol and Piezoelectric Ceramics.” Applied Physics Letters 103 (20):202902. doi: 10.1063/1.4829634. [Crossref]

  • Zhang, T., X. Yang, J. Ouyang, S. Chen, B. Tong, Y. Zhu, and Y. Zhang. 2013. “A New Magnetoelectric Composite with Enhanced Magnetoelectric Coefficient and Lower Resonance Frequency.” Applied Composite Materials 21:579–90. doi: 10.1007/s10443-013-9344-5. [Crossref]

  • Zhang, W. H., G. Yin, J. W. Cao, J. M. Bai, and F. L. Wei. 2012. “Frequency Multiplying Behavior in a Magnetoelectric Unimorph.” Applied Physics Letters 100 (3):032903. doi: 10.1063/1.3678635. [Crossref]

  • Zhao, H. Q., X. Peng, L. X. Zhang, J. Chen, W. S. Yan, and X. R. Xing. 2013. “Large Remanent Polarization in Multiferroic NdFeO3-PbTiO3 Thin Film.” Applied Physics Letters 103 (8):082904.

  • Zheng, H., J. Wang, S. E. Lofland, Z. Ma, L. Mohaddes-Ardabili, T. Zhao, L. Salamanca-Riba, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, F. Bai, et al. 2004. “Multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 Nanostructures.” Science 303 (5658):661–3.

  • Zhong, X. L., J. B. Wang, M. Liao, G. J. Huang, S. H. Xie, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Qiao, and J. P. He. 2007. “Multiferroic Nanoparticulate Bi3.15Nd0.85Ti3O12-CoFe2O4 Composite Thin Films Prepared by a Chemical Solution Deposition Technique.” Applied Physics Letters 90 (15):152903.

  • Zhou, Y., D. J. Apo, and S. Priya. 2013a. “Dual-Phase Self-Biased Magnetoelectric Energy Harvester.” Applied Physics Letters 103 (19):192909.

  • Zhou, Y., D. J. Apo, and S. Priya. 2013b. “Dual-Phase Self-Biased Magnetoelectric Energy Harvester.” Applied Physics Letters 103 (19):192909. doi: 10.1063/1.4829151. [Crossref]

  • Zhou, Y., A. Bhalla, and S. Priya. 2013. “Self-Biased Dual-Phase Energy Harvesting System.” MRS Proceedings 1556. San Francisco, California.

  • Zhou, L., J. He, X. Li, B. Li, D. L. Zhao, and X. L. Wang. 2009. “Exchange Bias Behaviour of Amorphous CoFeNiSiB Ribbons.” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 42 (19):195001.

  • Zhou, Y., and S. Priya. 2014. “Near-Flat Self-Biased Magnetoelectric Response in Geometry Gradient Composite.” Journal of Applied Physics 115 (10):104107. doi: 10.1063/1.4868340. [Crossref]

  • Zhou, Y., S. C. Yang, D. J. Apo, D. Maurya, and S. Priya. 2012. “Tunable Self-Biased Magnetoelectric Response in Homogenous Laminates.” Applied Physics Letters 101 (23):232905.

  • Zhuang, X., M. L. C. Sing, C. Cordier, S. Saez, C. Dolabdjian, L. G. Shen, J. F. Li, M. H. Li, and D. Viehland. 2011. “Evaluation of Applied Axial Field Modulation Technique on ME Sensor Input Equivalent Magnetic Noise Rejection.” IEEE Sensors Journal 11 (10):2266–72.

About the article

Published Online: 2015-07-15

Published in Print: 2016-01-01


Funding: This work was financially supported by the German Science Foundation (DFG), U.S. Department of Energy (grant/award no.: DE-FG02-06ER46290), Office of Naval Research, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).


Citation Information: Energy Harvesting and Systems, ISSN (Online) 2329-8766, ISSN (Print) 2329-8774, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ehs-2015-0003. Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Haribabu Palneedi, Venkateswarlu Annapureddy, Shashank Priya, and Jungho Ryu
Actuators, 2016, Volume 5, Number 1, Page 9
[2]
Hong Yao, Yang Shi, and Yuan-Wen Gao
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in