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European Journal of Scandinavian Studies

Ed. by Böldl, Klaus / Rühling, Lutz / van der Liet, Henk

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Scolding the Skald: The Construction of Cultural Memory in Morkinskinna’s Sneglu-Halla þáttr

Yoav Tirosh
Published Online: 2017-09-14 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ejss-2017-0001

Abstract

Around the year 1060, the misbehaving Icelandic skald Sneglu-Halli arrives at the court of king Haraldr harðráði and manages to provoke the king and his fellow courtiers, yet he leaves a richer and more successful man as a result. A literary analysis of Morkinskinna’s Sneglu-Halla þáttr shows that the protagonist’s portrayal is a deliberate if somewhat exaggerated construction of how Icelanders abroad should behave, as well as which memories of the 11th century the 13th century Icelanders wished to preserve. Sneglu-Halli’s provocative behavior is seen as a positive character trait that, if pursued moderately, helps establish the uniqueness of the Icelander at court. This behavior is juxtaposed with the famous skald Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, whose undoubted success at court is downplayed in the þáttr due to his running away from his meager Icelandic beginnings. Cultural Memory studies are the key to understanding this artistic manipulation, since the way we remember the past establishes our perception of the present.1

Literature

    Primary literature

    • Andersson, Theodore M./Kari Ellen Gade (ed. and trans.) 2000: Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030–1157). (= Islandica 51). Ithaca.Google Scholar

    • Aðalbjarnarson, Bjarni (ed.) 1945: Heimskringla Vol. 2. (= Íslenzk fornrit 27, ÍF 27). Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Clark, George (trans.) 1997: “The Tale of Sarcastic Halli”. In: Vidar Hreinsson (ed.): The Complete Sagas of Icelanders, Including 49 Tales Vol. 1. Reykjavík. 342–357.Google Scholar

    • Faulkes, Anthony (ed.) 1978: Two Icelandic stories: Hreiðars þáttr, Orms þáttr. London.Google Scholar

    • Guðmundsson, Finnbogi et al. (eds.) 1945: Flateyjarbók Vol. 4. Akranes.Google Scholar

    • Jakobsson, Ármann/Þórður Ingi Guðjónsson (eds.) 2011: Morkinskinna Vols. 1–2. (= Íslenzk fornrit 23–24, ÍF 23–24). Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Jóhannesson, Jón et al. (eds.) 1946: Sturlunga saga Vols. 1–2. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Jónsson, Guðni (ed.) 1936: Grettis saga Ásmundarsonar. (= Íslenzk fornrit 7, ÍF 7). Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Kristjánsson. Jónas (ed.) 1956: Eyfirðinga sǫgur. (= Íslenzk fornrit 9, ÍF 9). Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Sigurðsson, Gísli 2014: “Constructing a Past to Suit the Present: Sturla Þórðarson on Conflicts and Alliances with King Haraldr hárfagri.” Minni and Muninn: Memory in Medieval Nordic Culture. 175–196.Google Scholar

    • Sveinsson, Einar Ól. (ed.) 1934: Laxdœla saga. (= Íslenzk fornrit 5, ÍF 5). Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    Secondary literature

    • Arnórsdóttir, Agnes S. 2013: “Cultural Memory and Gender in Iceland from Medieval to Early Modern Times”. In: Scandinavian Studies 85.3. 378–399.Google Scholar

    • Assmann, Aleida 2006: “Memory, Individual and Collective”. In: Goodin, Robert E./Charles Tilly (eds.): The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Oxford. 210–224.Google Scholar

    • Assmann, Aleida 2010: ”Canon and Archive”. In: Erll, Astrid/Ansgar Nünning (eds.): A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies. Berlin. 97–107.Google Scholar

    • Assmann, Jan 1995: “Collective Memory and Cultural Identity”. Trans. John Czaplicka. In: New German Critique 65. 125–133.Google Scholar

    • Assmann, Jan 1997: Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism. Cambridge, MA/London.Google Scholar

    • Assmann, Jan 2003: “Cultural Memory: Script, Recollection, and Political Identity in Early Civilizations”. Trans. Ursula Ballin. In: Historiography East and West 1.2. 154–177.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Assmann, Jan 2010: “Communicative and Cultural Memory”. In: Erll, Astrid/Ansgar Nünning (eds.): A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies. Berlin. 109–118.Google Scholar

    • Bandlien, Bjørn 2013: “Hegemonic Memory, Counter-Memory, and Struggles for Royal Power: The Rhetoric of the Past in the Age of King Sverrir Sigurðsson of Norway”. In: Scandinavian Studies 85.3. 355–377.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Beamish, Thomas D. et al. 1995: “Who Supports the Troops? Vietnam, the Gulf War, and the Making of Collective Memory”. In: Social Problems 42.3. 344–360.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Bodemann, Y. Michal (ed.) 1996: Jews, Germans, Memory: Reconstructions of Jewish Life in Germany. Ann Arbor.Google Scholar

    • Boswell, John 1981: Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. Chicago.Google Scholar

    • Boulhosa, Patricia Pires 2005: Icelanders and the Kings of Norway. Mediaeval Sagas and Legal Texts. (= The Northern World 17). Leiden.Google Scholar

    • Burke, Peter 1997: Varieties of Cultural History. Ithaca.Google Scholar

    • Clunies Ross, Margaret 2005: A History of Old Norse Poetry and Poetics. Woodbridge.Google Scholar

    • Clunies Ross, Margaret 2014: “Authentication of Poetic Memory in Old Norse Skaldic Verse”. In: Hermann, Pernille et al. (eds.): Minni and Muninn: Memory in Medieval Nordic Culture. Turnhout. 59–74.Google Scholar

    • Connerton, Paul 1989: How Societies Remember. Cambridge.Google Scholar

    • Erll, Astrid 2010: “Introduction”. In: Erll, Astrid/Ansgar Nünning (eds.): A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies Vol. 8. Berlin. 1–15.Google Scholar

    • Gade, Kari Ellen 2000: “Poetry and Its Changing Importance in Medieval Icelandic Culture”. In: Clunies Ross, Margaret (ed.): Old Icelandic Literature and Society. (= Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 42). Cambridge. 61–95.Google Scholar

    • Gedi, Noa/Yigal Elam 1996: “Collective Memory: What Is It?”. In: History and Memory 8.1. 30–50.Google Scholar

    • Gilbert, Anthony J. 1991: “The Icelander Abroad: The Concept of Social and National Identity in Some Icelandic Þættir”. In: Neophilologus 75.3. 408–424.Google Scholar

    • Glauser, Jürg 2000: “Sagas of Icelanders (Íslendinga sögur) and þættir as the Literary Representation of a New Social Space”. Trans. John Clifton-Everest. In: Clunies Ross, Margaret (ed.): Old Icelandic Literature and Society. (= Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 42). Cambridge. 203–220.Google Scholar

    • Glauser, Jürg. 2007: “The Speaking Bodies of Saga Texts”. In: Quinn, Jody et al. (eds.): Learning and Understanding in the Old Norse World. Essays in Honour of Margaret Clunies Ross. (= Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe 18). Turnhout. 13–26.Google Scholar

    • Halbwachs, Maurice 1980: The Collective Memory. Trans. Francis J. Ditter, Jr., and Vida Yazdi Ditter. New York.Google Scholar

    • Halbwachs, Maurice 1992: On Collective Memory. Ed. and trans. Lewis A. Coser. Chicago.Google Scholar

    • Hermann, Pernille 2007: “Íslendingabók and History”. In: Pernille Hermann et al. (eds): Reflections on Old Norse Myths. (= Studies in Viking and Medieval Scandinavia I). Turnhout. 17–32.Google Scholar

    • Hermann, Pernille 2010: “Founding Narratives and the Representation of Memory in Saga Literature”. In: Arv 66. 69–87.Google Scholar

    • Hermann, Pernille 2013: “Saga Literature, Cultural Memory, and Storage”. In: Scandinavian Studies 85.3. 332–354.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Hermann, Pernille [Forthcoming]: “Cultural Memory and Old Norse Mythology in the High Middle Ages”. In: Brink, Stephan/Lisa Collison (eds.): Theorizing Old Norse Myth. (= Acta Scandinavica 7). Turnhout. http://www.brepols.net/Pages/ShowProduct.aspx?prod_id=IS-9782503553030-1.Google Scholar

    • Hermann, Pernille/Stephen A. Mitchell (eds.) 2013a: Memory and Remembering: Past Awareness in the Medieval Norse. (= special issue: Scandinavian Studies 85.3).Google Scholar

    • Hermann, Pernille/Stephen A. Mitchell. 2013b: “Constructing the Past: Introductory Remarks.” In: Scandinavian Studies 85.3. 261–266.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Hermann, Pernille et al. (eds.) 2014: Minni and Muninn: Memory in Medieval Nordic Culture. Turnhout.Google Scholar

    • Heslop, Kate 2014: “Minni and the Rhetoric of Memory in Eddic, Skaldic, and Runic Texts”. In: Pernille Hermann et al. (eds.): Minni and Muninn: Memory in Medieval Nordic Culture. Turnhout. 75–107.Google Scholar

    • Hirst, William/Charles B. Stone 2015: “A Unified Approach to Collective Memory: Sociology, Psychology and the Extended Mind”. In: Kattago, Siobhan (ed.): The Ashgate Research Companion to Memory Studies. Surrey. 103–115.Google Scholar

    • Jacquart, Danielle/Claude Thomasset 1988: Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages. Trans. Matthew Adamson. Oxford.Google Scholar

    • Jakobsson, Ármann 2002: Staður í nýjum heimi: Konungasagan Morkinskinna. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Jakobsson, Ármann 2013: “The Life and Death of the Medieval Icelandic Short Story”. In: JEGP, Journal of English and Germanic Philology 112.3. 257–291.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Jakobsson, Ármann 2014: A Sense of Belonging: Morkinskinna and the Icelandic Identity c. 1220. Trans. Fredrik Heinemann. (= The Viking Collection 22). Odense.Google Scholar

    • Kenny, Michael G. 1999: “A Place for Memory: The Interface Between Individual and Collective History”. In: Comparative Studies in Society and History 41.03. 420–437.Google Scholar

    • Lindow, John 1997: “Íslendingabók and Myth”. In: Scandinavian Studies. 454–464.Google Scholar

    • Lönnroth, Lars 1969: “The Noble Heathen: A Theme in the Sagas”. In: Scandinavian Studies 41. 1–29.Google Scholar

    • Mitchell, Stephen A. 2013: “Memory, Mediality and the Performative Turn”. In: Scandinavian Studies 85.3. 282–305.Google Scholar

    • Nietzsche, Friedrich 1957: The Use and Abuse of History. Trans. Adrian Collins. New York.Google Scholar

    • Nordal, Guðrún 2001: Tools of Literacy: The Role of Skaldic Verse in Icelandic Textual Culture of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Toronto.Google Scholar

    • O’Donoghue, Heather 2005: Skaldic Verse and the Poetics of Saga Narrative. Oxford.Google Scholar

    • Óskarsdóttir, Svanhildur 2006: “Genbrug í Skagafjörður: Arbejdsmetoder hos skrivere i klostret på Reynistaður”. In: Mundal, Else (ed.): Reykholt som makt og lærdomssenter i den islandske og nordiske kontekst. Reykholt. 141–154.Google Scholar

    • Pálsson, Hermann 1992: “Hirðskáld í spéspegli”. In: Skáldskaparmál 2. 148–169.Google Scholar

    • Patrick, Brian Anse 2008: “Vikings and Rappers: The Icelandic Sagas Hip-Hop across 8 Mile”. In: The Journal of Popular Culture 41.2. 281–305.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Perkins, Richard 1999: “The Gateway to Trondheim: Two Icelanders at Agdenes”. In: Saga-Book of the Viking Society 25. 179–213.Google Scholar

    • Poole, Russell 2014: “Autobiographical Memory in Medieval Scandinavia and amongst the Kievan Rus”. In: Pernille Hermann et al. (eds): Minni and Muninn: Memory in Medieval Nordic Culture. Turnhout. 109–129.Google Scholar

    • Roediger, H./J. V. Wertsch 2008: “Creating a New Discipline of Memory”. In: Memory Studies 1. 9–22.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Rigney, Ann 2004: “Portable Monuments: Literature, Cultural Memory, and the Case of Jeanie Deans”. In: Poetics Today 25.2. 361–396.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Rowe, Elizabeth Ashman/Joseph Harris 2005: “Short Prose Narrative (þáttr)”. In: McTurk, Rory (ed.): A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture. (= Blackwell Companions 31). Oxford. 462–478.Google Scholar

    • Sigurðsson, Jón Viðar 1995: “The Icelandic Aristocracy after the Fall of the Free State”. In: Scandinavian Journal of History 20. 153–166.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Spiegel, Gabrielle M. 1999: The Past as Text: The Theory and Practice of Medieval Historiography. Baltimore/London.Google Scholar

    • Stein, Robert M. 2005: “Literary Criticism and the Evidence for History”. In: Partner, Nandy (ed.): Writing Medieval History. London. 67–87.Google Scholar

    • Tulinius, Torfi H. 2009: “Pierre Bourdieu and Snorri Sturluson. Chieftains, Sociology and the Development of Literature in Medieval Iceland”. In: Jørgensen, Jon Gunnar (ed.): Snorres Edda – i europeisk og islandsk kultur. Reykjaholt. 47–72.Google Scholar

    • Wanner, Kevin J. 2008: Snorri Sturluson and the Edda: The Conversion of Cultural Capital in Medieval Scandinavia. Toronto.Google Scholar

    • Wolf, Kirsten (ed.) 2011: A Female Legendary from Iceland: “Kirkjubæjarbók” (AM 429 12mo) in The Arnamagnæan Collection, Copenhagen. (= Manuscripta Nordica: Early Nordic Manuscripts in Digital Facsimile 3). Copenhagen.Google Scholar

    • Þorláksson, Helgi 2007: “Er Gamli sáttmáli tómur tilbúningur?”. In: Þriðja íslenska söguþingið 18.–21. Maí 2006. Ráðstefnurit. Ritstj. Benedikt Eyþórsson, Hrafnkell Lárusson. Reykjavík: Aðstandendur Þriðja íslenska söguþingsins, 392–398.Google Scholar

Primary literature

  • Andersson, Theodore M./Kari Ellen Gade (ed. and trans.) 2000: Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030–1157). (= Islandica 51). Ithaca.Google Scholar

  • Aðalbjarnarson, Bjarni (ed.) 1945: Heimskringla Vol. 2. (= Íslenzk fornrit 27, ÍF 27). Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Clark, George (trans.) 1997: “The Tale of Sarcastic Halli”. In: Vidar Hreinsson (ed.): The Complete Sagas of Icelanders, Including 49 Tales Vol. 1. Reykjavík. 342–357.Google Scholar

  • Faulkes, Anthony (ed.) 1978: Two Icelandic stories: Hreiðars þáttr, Orms þáttr. London.Google Scholar

  • Guðmundsson, Finnbogi et al. (eds.) 1945: Flateyjarbók Vol. 4. Akranes.Google Scholar

  • Jakobsson, Ármann/Þórður Ingi Guðjónsson (eds.) 2011: Morkinskinna Vols. 1–2. (= Íslenzk fornrit 23–24, ÍF 23–24). Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Jóhannesson, Jón et al. (eds.) 1946: Sturlunga saga Vols. 1–2. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Jónsson, Guðni (ed.) 1936: Grettis saga Ásmundarsonar. (= Íslenzk fornrit 7, ÍF 7). Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Kristjánsson. Jónas (ed.) 1956: Eyfirðinga sǫgur. (= Íslenzk fornrit 9, ÍF 9). Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Sigurðsson, Gísli 2014: “Constructing a Past to Suit the Present: Sturla Þórðarson on Conflicts and Alliances with King Haraldr hárfagri.” Minni and Muninn: Memory in Medieval Nordic Culture. 175–196.Google Scholar

  • Sveinsson, Einar Ól. (ed.) 1934: Laxdœla saga. (= Íslenzk fornrit 5, ÍF 5). Reykjavík.Google Scholar

Secondary literature

  • Arnórsdóttir, Agnes S. 2013: “Cultural Memory and Gender in Iceland from Medieval to Early Modern Times”. In: Scandinavian Studies 85.3. 378–399.Google Scholar

  • Assmann, Aleida 2006: “Memory, Individual and Collective”. In: Goodin, Robert E./Charles Tilly (eds.): The Oxford Handbook of Contextual Political Analysis. Oxford. 210–224.Google Scholar

  • Assmann, Aleida 2010: ”Canon and Archive”. In: Erll, Astrid/Ansgar Nünning (eds.): A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies. Berlin. 97–107.Google Scholar

  • Assmann, Jan 1995: “Collective Memory and Cultural Identity”. Trans. John Czaplicka. In: New German Critique 65. 125–133.Google Scholar

  • Assmann, Jan 1997: Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism. Cambridge, MA/London.Google Scholar

  • Assmann, Jan 2003: “Cultural Memory: Script, Recollection, and Political Identity in Early Civilizations”. Trans. Ursula Ballin. In: Historiography East and West 1.2. 154–177.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Assmann, Jan 2010: “Communicative and Cultural Memory”. In: Erll, Astrid/Ansgar Nünning (eds.): A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies. Berlin. 109–118.Google Scholar

  • Bandlien, Bjørn 2013: “Hegemonic Memory, Counter-Memory, and Struggles for Royal Power: The Rhetoric of the Past in the Age of King Sverrir Sigurðsson of Norway”. In: Scandinavian Studies 85.3. 355–377.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Beamish, Thomas D. et al. 1995: “Who Supports the Troops? Vietnam, the Gulf War, and the Making of Collective Memory”. In: Social Problems 42.3. 344–360.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bodemann, Y. Michal (ed.) 1996: Jews, Germans, Memory: Reconstructions of Jewish Life in Germany. Ann Arbor.Google Scholar

  • Boswell, John 1981: Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. Chicago.Google Scholar

  • Boulhosa, Patricia Pires 2005: Icelanders and the Kings of Norway. Mediaeval Sagas and Legal Texts. (= The Northern World 17). Leiden.Google Scholar

  • Burke, Peter 1997: Varieties of Cultural History. Ithaca.Google Scholar

  • Clunies Ross, Margaret 2005: A History of Old Norse Poetry and Poetics. Woodbridge.Google Scholar

  • Clunies Ross, Margaret 2014: “Authentication of Poetic Memory in Old Norse Skaldic Verse”. In: Hermann, Pernille et al. (eds.): Minni and Muninn: Memory in Medieval Nordic Culture. Turnhout. 59–74.Google Scholar

  • Connerton, Paul 1989: How Societies Remember. Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Erll, Astrid 2010: “Introduction”. In: Erll, Astrid/Ansgar Nünning (eds.): A Companion to Cultural Memory Studies Vol. 8. Berlin. 1–15.Google Scholar

  • Gade, Kari Ellen 2000: “Poetry and Its Changing Importance in Medieval Icelandic Culture”. In: Clunies Ross, Margaret (ed.): Old Icelandic Literature and Society. (= Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 42). Cambridge. 61–95.Google Scholar

  • Gedi, Noa/Yigal Elam 1996: “Collective Memory: What Is It?”. In: History and Memory 8.1. 30–50.Google Scholar

  • Gilbert, Anthony J. 1991: “The Icelander Abroad: The Concept of Social and National Identity in Some Icelandic Þættir”. In: Neophilologus 75.3. 408–424.Google Scholar

  • Glauser, Jürg 2000: “Sagas of Icelanders (Íslendinga sögur) and þættir as the Literary Representation of a New Social Space”. Trans. John Clifton-Everest. In: Clunies Ross, Margaret (ed.): Old Icelandic Literature and Society. (= Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 42). Cambridge. 203–220.Google Scholar

  • Glauser, Jürg. 2007: “The Speaking Bodies of Saga Texts”. In: Quinn, Jody et al. (eds.): Learning and Understanding in the Old Norse World. Essays in Honour of Margaret Clunies Ross. (= Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe 18). Turnhout. 13–26.Google Scholar

  • Halbwachs, Maurice 1980: The Collective Memory. Trans. Francis J. Ditter, Jr., and Vida Yazdi Ditter. New York.Google Scholar

  • Halbwachs, Maurice 1992: On Collective Memory. Ed. and trans. Lewis A. Coser. Chicago.Google Scholar

  • Hermann, Pernille 2007: “Íslendingabók and History”. In: Pernille Hermann et al. (eds): Reflections on Old Norse Myths. (= Studies in Viking and Medieval Scandinavia I). Turnhout. 17–32.Google Scholar

  • Hermann, Pernille 2010: “Founding Narratives and the Representation of Memory in Saga Literature”. In: Arv 66. 69–87.Google Scholar

  • Hermann, Pernille 2013: “Saga Literature, Cultural Memory, and Storage”. In: Scandinavian Studies 85.3. 332–354.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hermann, Pernille [Forthcoming]: “Cultural Memory and Old Norse Mythology in the High Middle Ages”. In: Brink, Stephan/Lisa Collison (eds.): Theorizing Old Norse Myth. (= Acta Scandinavica 7). Turnhout. http://www.brepols.net/Pages/ShowProduct.aspx?prod_id=IS-9782503553030-1.Google Scholar

  • Hermann, Pernille/Stephen A. Mitchell (eds.) 2013a: Memory and Remembering: Past Awareness in the Medieval Norse. (= special issue: Scandinavian Studies 85.3).Google Scholar

  • Hermann, Pernille/Stephen A. Mitchell. 2013b: “Constructing the Past: Introductory Remarks.” In: Scandinavian Studies 85.3. 261–266.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hermann, Pernille et al. (eds.) 2014: Minni and Muninn: Memory in Medieval Nordic Culture. Turnhout.Google Scholar

  • Heslop, Kate 2014: “Minni and the Rhetoric of Memory in Eddic, Skaldic, and Runic Texts”. In: Pernille Hermann et al. (eds.): Minni and Muninn: Memory in Medieval Nordic Culture. Turnhout. 75–107.Google Scholar

  • Hirst, William/Charles B. Stone 2015: “A Unified Approach to Collective Memory: Sociology, Psychology and the Extended Mind”. In: Kattago, Siobhan (ed.): The Ashgate Research Companion to Memory Studies. Surrey. 103–115.Google Scholar

  • Jacquart, Danielle/Claude Thomasset 1988: Sexuality and Medicine in the Middle Ages. Trans. Matthew Adamson. Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Jakobsson, Ármann 2002: Staður í nýjum heimi: Konungasagan Morkinskinna. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Jakobsson, Ármann 2013: “The Life and Death of the Medieval Icelandic Short Story”. In: JEGP, Journal of English and Germanic Philology 112.3. 257–291.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jakobsson, Ármann 2014: A Sense of Belonging: Morkinskinna and the Icelandic Identity c. 1220. Trans. Fredrik Heinemann. (= The Viking Collection 22). Odense.Google Scholar

  • Kenny, Michael G. 1999: “A Place for Memory: The Interface Between Individual and Collective History”. In: Comparative Studies in Society and History 41.03. 420–437.Google Scholar

  • Lindow, John 1997: “Íslendingabók and Myth”. In: Scandinavian Studies. 454–464.Google Scholar

  • Lönnroth, Lars 1969: “The Noble Heathen: A Theme in the Sagas”. In: Scandinavian Studies 41. 1–29.Google Scholar

  • Mitchell, Stephen A. 2013: “Memory, Mediality and the Performative Turn”. In: Scandinavian Studies 85.3. 282–305.Google Scholar

  • Nietzsche, Friedrich 1957: The Use and Abuse of History. Trans. Adrian Collins. New York.Google Scholar

  • Nordal, Guðrún 2001: Tools of Literacy: The Role of Skaldic Verse in Icelandic Textual Culture of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Toronto.Google Scholar

  • O’Donoghue, Heather 2005: Skaldic Verse and the Poetics of Saga Narrative. Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Óskarsdóttir, Svanhildur 2006: “Genbrug í Skagafjörður: Arbejdsmetoder hos skrivere i klostret på Reynistaður”. In: Mundal, Else (ed.): Reykholt som makt og lærdomssenter i den islandske og nordiske kontekst. Reykholt. 141–154.Google Scholar

  • Pálsson, Hermann 1992: “Hirðskáld í spéspegli”. In: Skáldskaparmál 2. 148–169.Google Scholar

  • Patrick, Brian Anse 2008: “Vikings and Rappers: The Icelandic Sagas Hip-Hop across 8 Mile”. In: The Journal of Popular Culture 41.2. 281–305.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Perkins, Richard 1999: “The Gateway to Trondheim: Two Icelanders at Agdenes”. In: Saga-Book of the Viking Society 25. 179–213.Google Scholar

  • Poole, Russell 2014: “Autobiographical Memory in Medieval Scandinavia and amongst the Kievan Rus”. In: Pernille Hermann et al. (eds): Minni and Muninn: Memory in Medieval Nordic Culture. Turnhout. 109–129.Google Scholar

  • Roediger, H./J. V. Wertsch 2008: “Creating a New Discipline of Memory”. In: Memory Studies 1. 9–22.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rigney, Ann 2004: “Portable Monuments: Literature, Cultural Memory, and the Case of Jeanie Deans”. In: Poetics Today 25.2. 361–396.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rowe, Elizabeth Ashman/Joseph Harris 2005: “Short Prose Narrative (þáttr)”. In: McTurk, Rory (ed.): A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture. (= Blackwell Companions 31). Oxford. 462–478.Google Scholar

  • Sigurðsson, Jón Viðar 1995: “The Icelandic Aristocracy after the Fall of the Free State”. In: Scandinavian Journal of History 20. 153–166.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Spiegel, Gabrielle M. 1999: The Past as Text: The Theory and Practice of Medieval Historiography. Baltimore/London.Google Scholar

  • Stein, Robert M. 2005: “Literary Criticism and the Evidence for History”. In: Partner, Nandy (ed.): Writing Medieval History. London. 67–87.Google Scholar

  • Tulinius, Torfi H. 2009: “Pierre Bourdieu and Snorri Sturluson. Chieftains, Sociology and the Development of Literature in Medieval Iceland”. In: Jørgensen, Jon Gunnar (ed.): Snorres Edda – i europeisk og islandsk kultur. Reykjaholt. 47–72.Google Scholar

  • Wanner, Kevin J. 2008: Snorri Sturluson and the Edda: The Conversion of Cultural Capital in Medieval Scandinavia. Toronto.Google Scholar

  • Wolf, Kirsten (ed.) 2011: A Female Legendary from Iceland: “Kirkjubæjarbók” (AM 429 12mo) in The Arnamagnæan Collection, Copenhagen. (= Manuscripta Nordica: Early Nordic Manuscripts in Digital Facsimile 3). Copenhagen.Google Scholar

  • Þorláksson, Helgi 2007: “Er Gamli sáttmáli tómur tilbúningur?”. In: Þriðja íslenska söguþingið 18.–21. Maí 2006. Ráðstefnurit. Ritstj. Benedikt Eyþórsson, Hrafnkell Lárusson. Reykjavík: Aðstandendur Þriðja íslenska söguþingsins, 392–398.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2017-09-14

Published in Print: 2017-04-25


Citation Information: European Journal of Scandinavian Studies, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 1–23, ISSN (Online) 2191-9402, ISSN (Print) 2191-9399, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ejss-2017-0001.

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