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European Journal of Scandinavian Studies

Ed. by Böldl, Klaus / Rühling, Lutz / van der Liet, Henk


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Íslenzkt þjóðerni: Jón Jónsson Aðils’ Iceland and the road to the future

Kim Middel
  • Corresponding author
  • Faculty of Arts, University of Groningen, Oude Boteringestaat 23, 9712 GC Groningen, The Netherlands
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-10-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ejss-2018-0013

Abstract

In the early twentieth century, historiography was used to further the cause of independence by profiling Iceland as a fully-fledged nation. The Icelandic historian Jón Jónsson Aðils was the man who would shape Iceland’s history, and the nation with it, in his work Icelandic Nationhood. His achievement was not self-evident; Iceland was part of the Danish realm and glorifying the past met with restrictions. This paper aims to illustrate how in this setting Aðils succeeded in constructing the Icelandic nation with the aid of existing Danish nationalist thought. I propose that using ideas of the famous Danish nationalist N.F.S. Grundtvig enabled Aðils to construct an Icelandic ’Golden Age’ specifically focused on culture and freedom that held future prospects. Finally, I will discuss the consequence of this focus as a decisive factor in the development of Icelandic self-awareness, aiming to contribute to the larger debate on the creation of national identities.

Literature

    Primary Literature

    • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1895–7: ‘Den danske regering og den islandske monopolhandel, nærmest i det 18. århundrede’. In: Historisk Tidskrift 6-6, 535–610.Google Scholar

    • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1902: ‘Alþýðuháskolar’. In: Eimreiðin 8-1, 4–62.Google Scholar

    • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1908: ‘Nýji sáttmáli – Gamli sáttmáli: afsal eða ekki?’ In: Reykjavík 9-29, 113–4.Google Scholar

    • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1903: Íslenzkt þjóðerni. Alþýðufyrirlestrar. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1906: Gullöld Íslendinga. Menning og lífshættir feðra vorra á söguöldinni. Alþýðufyrirlestrar. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1910: Dagrenning. Fimm alþýðuerindi. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1915: Íslandssaga. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1919: Einokunarverzlun Dana á Islandi 1602–1787. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Grundtvig, N.F.S. 1842: Krönike-riim til levende skolebrug med oplysninger. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

    • Grundtvig, N.F.S. 1848: ‘Folkeligheden’. In: Danskeren, et Ugeblad 1, 381–4.Google Scholar

    • Grundtvig, N.F.S. 1907: Udvalgte skrifter, Vol. 5. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

    • Grundtvig, N.F.S. 1908: Udvalgte skrifter, Vol. 7. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

    • Grundtvig, N.F.S. 1909: Udvalgte skrifter, Vol. 8. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

    • Jónsson, Arngrímur [1609]: Crymogæa sive rerum islandicarum libri iii. Copenhagen 1951.Google Scholar

    • Jónsson, Finnur 1772–1778: Historia Ecclesiastica Islandiæ, Vol. 1–4. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

    • Jónsson (frá Hríflu), Jónas 1915–6: Íslandssaga handa börnum, Vol. 1–2. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Renan, Ernest 1882: Qu’est-ce qu’une nation? Paris.Google Scholar

    Secondary Literature

    • Bergsson, Eiríkur 2017: ‘Iceland: Ever-Lasting Independence Struggle’. In: Eiríkur Bergsson (ed.): Nordic nationalism and right-wing populist politics. London, 93–124.Google Scholar

    • Birkelund, Regner 2008: Frihed til fælles bedste. En oppositionel stemme fra fortiden. Om Grundtvigs frihedsbegreb. Århus.Google Scholar

    • Böss, Michael 2015: ‘Grundtvig and cultural nationalism’. In: John A. Hall et al. (ed.): Building the nation. N.F.S. Grundtvig and Danish national identity. Montreal, 79–94.Google Scholar

    • Brynjúlfsson, Gísli/Jón Þórðarson (eds.) 1849: Norðurfari 2. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

    • Bugge, Knud Eyvin 1965: Skolen for livet. Studier over N.F.S. Grundtvigs pædagogiske tanker. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

    • Damsholt, Tine 2015: ‘‘Hand of king and voice of people’: Grundtvig on democracy and the responsibility of the self’. In: John A. Hall et al. (ed.): Building the nation. N.F.S. Grundtvig and Danish national identity. Montreal, 151–68.Google Scholar

    • Finnbogason, Guðmundur 1905: Skýrsla um fræðslu barna og unglinga, veturinn 1903–1904. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Glyn Jones, Walton 1970: Denmark. London.Google Scholar

    • Gottskálksdóttir, Júlíana 2011: ‘Monuments to Settlers of the North: A Means to Strengthen National Identity’. In: Sumarliði Ísleifsson/Daniel Chartier (ed.): Iceland and Images of the North. Sainte-Foy, 205–28.Google Scholar

    • Gröndal, Benedikt 1873: ‘Sæmundur fróði. Sæmundar-Edda’. In: Gefn 4, 1–33.Google Scholar

    • Guðmundsson, Valtýr 1903: ‘Jón Jónsson. Íslenzkt þjóðerni’. In: Eimreiðin 9-3, 228–31.Google Scholar

    • Hafstein, Jóhann 1941: ‘Sjálfstæðisstefnan’. In: Jóhann Hafstein/Gunnar Thoroddsen (ed.): Stjórnmál. Ræður og ritgerðir. Reykjavík, 57–85.Google Scholar

    • Halink, Simon 2017: ‘Noble heathens: Jón Jónsson Aðils and the problem of Iceland’s pagan past’. In: Nations and Nationalism 23-3, 463–83.Google Scholar

    • Hálfdanarson, Guðmundur 2000: ‘A peaceful secession’. In: Scandinavian Journal of History 25, 87–100.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

    • Hálfdanarson, Guðmundur 2007: Íslenska þjóðríkið. Uppruni og endimörk. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Hálfdanarson, Guðmundur 2010: ‘Sagan og sjálfsmynd(ir) íslenskrar þjóðar’. In: Glíman 7, 113–35.Google Scholar

    • Helgason, Jón Karl 1998: Hetjan og höfundurinn. Brot úr íslenskri menningarsögu. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Helgason, Magnús 1918: ‘Erindi eftir messu í Hrepphólum 1. apríl 1918’. In: Þjóðólfur 65-6, 21–3.Google Scholar

    • Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. et al. 2013: Report on Iceland. San Domenico di Fiesole. http://eudo-citizenship.eu/docs/CountryReports/Iceland.pdf [19.06.2017].Google Scholar

    • Jónsson, Bjarni 1918: ‘Ágrip af ræðu’. In: Fréttir 194, 1.Google Scholar

    • Karlsson, Gunnar 2000: Iceland’s 1100 years. London.Google Scholar

    • Lerner, Marion 2010: Landnahme-Mythos, kulturelles Gedächtnis und nationale Identität. Isländische Reisevereine im frühen 20. Jahrhundert. Berlin.Google Scholar

    • Lundgreen-Nielsen, Flemming 2003: ‘Grundtvig and romanticism’. In: Jon Stewart (ed.): Kierkegaard and his Contemporaries. Berlin, 203–30.Google Scholar

    • Lundgreen-Nielsen, Flemming 1992: ‘Danskhed i krige og kriser. 1800–1864’. In: Flemming Lundgreen-Nielsen (ed.): På sporet af dansk identitet. Copenhagen, 109–51.Google Scholar

    • Lundgreen-Nielsen, Flemming 1995: ‘Grundtvig i guldealderens København’. In: Grundtvig-studier 46, 107–39.Google Scholar

    • Magnússon, Sigurður Gylfi/Davíð Ólafsson 2002. ‘Barefoot Historians: Education in Iceland in the Modern Period’. In: Klaus-Joachim Lorenzen-Schmidt and Bjørn Poulsen (eds.): Writing Peasants. Studies on Peasant Literacy in Early Modern Northern Europe. Århus, 175–209.Google Scholar

    • Matthíasdóttir, Sigríður 2004. Hinn sanni Íslendingur. Þjóðerni, kyngervi og vald á Íslandi 1900–1930. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • von Maurer, Konrad/Jón Sigurðsson 1882: Upphaf allsherjarríkis á Íslandi og stjórnarskipunar þess. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Middel, Kim 2016: ‘Arngrímur Jónsson and the mapping of Iceland’. In: Lotte Jensen (ed.): The Roots of Nationalism. National Identity Formation in Early Modern Europe, 1600–1815. Amsterdam, 109–33.Google Scholar

    • Middel, Kim 2018: ‘Finnur Jonsson’s Iceland: the periphery of the North at the centre of attention’. In: Tijdschrift voor Skandinavistiek 36-2, 206–14.Google Scholar

    • NN 1846. ‘Fáein orð um félagskap og samtök presta’. In: Ársrit samið og gefið út af prestum og aðstoðarprestum í Syðri-Þórsnesþingi, 1–15.

    • NN 1851. In: Tíðindi frá þjóðfundi Íslendinga árið 1851, 199–315.

    • NN 1861. In: Þjóðólfur 13-37/8, 153.

    • NN 1868: ‘Frjettir innlendar’. In: Baldur 1-12, 46–47.

    • NN 1907. In: Unga Ísland 3-8, 64.

    • NN 1918. ‘Dagurinn’. In: Morgunblaðið 6-21, 1.

    • NN 1918. ‘Mikilvæg tímamót. Hið fullvalda íslenzka ríki’. In: Ísafold 45-57, 1.

    • NN 1920. ‘Jón J. Aðils prófessor’. In: Tíminn 4-27, 106.

    • Ólason, Páll Eggert 1920: ‘Jón Jónsson Aðils’. In: Skírnir 94-4, 225–48.Google Scholar

    • Østergård, Uffe 2015: ‘Nation-building and nationalism in the Oldenburg empire’. In: Stefan Berge/Alexei Miller (ed.): Nationalizing empires. Budapest, 461–510.Google Scholar

    • Pedersen, Ove Kaj 2015. ‘Conclusion’. In: John A. Hall et al. (ed.): Building the nation. N.F.S. Grundtvig and Danish national identity. Montreal, 412–26.Google Scholar

    • Pontoppidan Thyssen, Anders 1983: ‘Grundtvig’s ideas on the church and the people up to 1824’. In: Christian Thodberg/Anders Pontoppidan Thyssen (ed.): N.F.S. Grundtvig. Tradition and renewal. Grundtvig’s vision of man and people, education and the church, in relation to world issues today. Copenhagen, 87–120.Google Scholar

    • Richter, Susan et al. 2016: Was ist Freiheit? Eine historische Perspektive. Frankfurt am Main.Google Scholar

    • Sigurðsson, Ingi 1986: Íslenzk sagnfræði frá miðri 19. öld til miðrar 20 aldar. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

    • Sigurðsson, Ingi 2003: ‘Útbreiðsla og viðtökur alþýðlegra fræðslurita’. In: Loftur Guttormsson/Ingi Sigurðsson (ed.): Alþýðumenning á Íslandi 1830–1930. Reykjavík, 115–47.Google Scholar

    • Sigurðsson, Jón et al. 1851: ‘Nefndarálit í stjórnarskipunarmálinu’. In: Tíðindi frá þjóðfundi Íslendinga árið 1851, 496–517.Google Scholar

    • Sigurðsson, Jón 1860: ‘Um málefni Íslands’. In: Ný félagsrit 20, 1–22.Google Scholar

    • Vigfússon, Guðbrandur 1860: ‘Íslenzkar réttritunarreglur eptir Halldór Friðriksson’. In: Þjóðólfur 12-18/19, 69–71 and Þjóðólfur 12-24/25, 95–7.Google Scholar

    • Þorkellsson, Jón 1858: ‘Vatnsdæla saga’. In: Þjóðólfur 11-3/4, 10–2.Google Scholar

Primary Literature

  • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1895–7: ‘Den danske regering og den islandske monopolhandel, nærmest i det 18. århundrede’. In: Historisk Tidskrift 6-6, 535–610.Google Scholar

  • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1902: ‘Alþýðuháskolar’. In: Eimreiðin 8-1, 4–62.Google Scholar

  • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1908: ‘Nýji sáttmáli – Gamli sáttmáli: afsal eða ekki?’ In: Reykjavík 9-29, 113–4.Google Scholar

  • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1903: Íslenzkt þjóðerni. Alþýðufyrirlestrar. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1906: Gullöld Íslendinga. Menning og lífshættir feðra vorra á söguöldinni. Alþýðufyrirlestrar. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1910: Dagrenning. Fimm alþýðuerindi. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1915: Íslandssaga. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Aðils (Jónsson), Jón 1919: Einokunarverzlun Dana á Islandi 1602–1787. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Grundtvig, N.F.S. 1842: Krönike-riim til levende skolebrug med oplysninger. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

  • Grundtvig, N.F.S. 1848: ‘Folkeligheden’. In: Danskeren, et Ugeblad 1, 381–4.Google Scholar

  • Grundtvig, N.F.S. 1907: Udvalgte skrifter, Vol. 5. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

  • Grundtvig, N.F.S. 1908: Udvalgte skrifter, Vol. 7. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

  • Grundtvig, N.F.S. 1909: Udvalgte skrifter, Vol. 8. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

  • Jónsson, Arngrímur [1609]: Crymogæa sive rerum islandicarum libri iii. Copenhagen 1951.Google Scholar

  • Jónsson, Finnur 1772–1778: Historia Ecclesiastica Islandiæ, Vol. 1–4. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

  • Jónsson (frá Hríflu), Jónas 1915–6: Íslandssaga handa börnum, Vol. 1–2. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Renan, Ernest 1882: Qu’est-ce qu’une nation? Paris.Google Scholar

Secondary Literature

  • Bergsson, Eiríkur 2017: ‘Iceland: Ever-Lasting Independence Struggle’. In: Eiríkur Bergsson (ed.): Nordic nationalism and right-wing populist politics. London, 93–124.Google Scholar

  • Birkelund, Regner 2008: Frihed til fælles bedste. En oppositionel stemme fra fortiden. Om Grundtvigs frihedsbegreb. Århus.Google Scholar

  • Böss, Michael 2015: ‘Grundtvig and cultural nationalism’. In: John A. Hall et al. (ed.): Building the nation. N.F.S. Grundtvig and Danish national identity. Montreal, 79–94.Google Scholar

  • Brynjúlfsson, Gísli/Jón Þórðarson (eds.) 1849: Norðurfari 2. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

  • Bugge, Knud Eyvin 1965: Skolen for livet. Studier over N.F.S. Grundtvigs pædagogiske tanker. Copenhagen.Google Scholar

  • Damsholt, Tine 2015: ‘‘Hand of king and voice of people’: Grundtvig on democracy and the responsibility of the self’. In: John A. Hall et al. (ed.): Building the nation. N.F.S. Grundtvig and Danish national identity. Montreal, 151–68.Google Scholar

  • Finnbogason, Guðmundur 1905: Skýrsla um fræðslu barna og unglinga, veturinn 1903–1904. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Glyn Jones, Walton 1970: Denmark. London.Google Scholar

  • Gottskálksdóttir, Júlíana 2011: ‘Monuments to Settlers of the North: A Means to Strengthen National Identity’. In: Sumarliði Ísleifsson/Daniel Chartier (ed.): Iceland and Images of the North. Sainte-Foy, 205–28.Google Scholar

  • Gröndal, Benedikt 1873: ‘Sæmundur fróði. Sæmundar-Edda’. In: Gefn 4, 1–33.Google Scholar

  • Guðmundsson, Valtýr 1903: ‘Jón Jónsson. Íslenzkt þjóðerni’. In: Eimreiðin 9-3, 228–31.Google Scholar

  • Hafstein, Jóhann 1941: ‘Sjálfstæðisstefnan’. In: Jóhann Hafstein/Gunnar Thoroddsen (ed.): Stjórnmál. Ræður og ritgerðir. Reykjavík, 57–85.Google Scholar

  • Halink, Simon 2017: ‘Noble heathens: Jón Jónsson Aðils and the problem of Iceland’s pagan past’. In: Nations and Nationalism 23-3, 463–83.Google Scholar

  • Hálfdanarson, Guðmundur 2000: ‘A peaceful secession’. In: Scandinavian Journal of History 25, 87–100.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hálfdanarson, Guðmundur 2007: Íslenska þjóðríkið. Uppruni og endimörk. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Hálfdanarson, Guðmundur 2010: ‘Sagan og sjálfsmynd(ir) íslenskrar þjóðar’. In: Glíman 7, 113–35.Google Scholar

  • Helgason, Jón Karl 1998: Hetjan og höfundurinn. Brot úr íslenskri menningarsögu. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Helgason, Magnús 1918: ‘Erindi eftir messu í Hrepphólum 1. apríl 1918’. In: Þjóðólfur 65-6, 21–3.Google Scholar

  • Jóhannesson, Guðni Th. et al. 2013: Report on Iceland. San Domenico di Fiesole. http://eudo-citizenship.eu/docs/CountryReports/Iceland.pdf [19.06.2017].Google Scholar

  • Jónsson, Bjarni 1918: ‘Ágrip af ræðu’. In: Fréttir 194, 1.Google Scholar

  • Karlsson, Gunnar 2000: Iceland’s 1100 years. London.Google Scholar

  • Lerner, Marion 2010: Landnahme-Mythos, kulturelles Gedächtnis und nationale Identität. Isländische Reisevereine im frühen 20. Jahrhundert. Berlin.Google Scholar

  • Lundgreen-Nielsen, Flemming 2003: ‘Grundtvig and romanticism’. In: Jon Stewart (ed.): Kierkegaard and his Contemporaries. Berlin, 203–30.Google Scholar

  • Lundgreen-Nielsen, Flemming 1992: ‘Danskhed i krige og kriser. 1800–1864’. In: Flemming Lundgreen-Nielsen (ed.): På sporet af dansk identitet. Copenhagen, 109–51.Google Scholar

  • Lundgreen-Nielsen, Flemming 1995: ‘Grundtvig i guldealderens København’. In: Grundtvig-studier 46, 107–39.Google Scholar

  • Magnússon, Sigurður Gylfi/Davíð Ólafsson 2002. ‘Barefoot Historians: Education in Iceland in the Modern Period’. In: Klaus-Joachim Lorenzen-Schmidt and Bjørn Poulsen (eds.): Writing Peasants. Studies on Peasant Literacy in Early Modern Northern Europe. Århus, 175–209.Google Scholar

  • Matthíasdóttir, Sigríður 2004. Hinn sanni Íslendingur. Þjóðerni, kyngervi og vald á Íslandi 1900–1930. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • von Maurer, Konrad/Jón Sigurðsson 1882: Upphaf allsherjarríkis á Íslandi og stjórnarskipunar þess. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Middel, Kim 2016: ‘Arngrímur Jónsson and the mapping of Iceland’. In: Lotte Jensen (ed.): The Roots of Nationalism. National Identity Formation in Early Modern Europe, 1600–1815. Amsterdam, 109–33.Google Scholar

  • Middel, Kim 2018: ‘Finnur Jonsson’s Iceland: the periphery of the North at the centre of attention’. In: Tijdschrift voor Skandinavistiek 36-2, 206–14.Google Scholar

  • NN 1846. ‘Fáein orð um félagskap og samtök presta’. In: Ársrit samið og gefið út af prestum og aðstoðarprestum í Syðri-Þórsnesþingi, 1–15.

  • NN 1851. In: Tíðindi frá þjóðfundi Íslendinga árið 1851, 199–315.

  • NN 1861. In: Þjóðólfur 13-37/8, 153.

  • NN 1868: ‘Frjettir innlendar’. In: Baldur 1-12, 46–47.

  • NN 1907. In: Unga Ísland 3-8, 64.

  • NN 1918. ‘Dagurinn’. In: Morgunblaðið 6-21, 1.

  • NN 1918. ‘Mikilvæg tímamót. Hið fullvalda íslenzka ríki’. In: Ísafold 45-57, 1.

  • NN 1920. ‘Jón J. Aðils prófessor’. In: Tíminn 4-27, 106.

  • Ólason, Páll Eggert 1920: ‘Jón Jónsson Aðils’. In: Skírnir 94-4, 225–48.Google Scholar

  • Østergård, Uffe 2015: ‘Nation-building and nationalism in the Oldenburg empire’. In: Stefan Berge/Alexei Miller (ed.): Nationalizing empires. Budapest, 461–510.Google Scholar

  • Pedersen, Ove Kaj 2015. ‘Conclusion’. In: John A. Hall et al. (ed.): Building the nation. N.F.S. Grundtvig and Danish national identity. Montreal, 412–26.Google Scholar

  • Pontoppidan Thyssen, Anders 1983: ‘Grundtvig’s ideas on the church and the people up to 1824’. In: Christian Thodberg/Anders Pontoppidan Thyssen (ed.): N.F.S. Grundtvig. Tradition and renewal. Grundtvig’s vision of man and people, education and the church, in relation to world issues today. Copenhagen, 87–120.Google Scholar

  • Richter, Susan et al. 2016: Was ist Freiheit? Eine historische Perspektive. Frankfurt am Main.Google Scholar

  • Sigurðsson, Ingi 1986: Íslenzk sagnfræði frá miðri 19. öld til miðrar 20 aldar. Reykjavík.Google Scholar

  • Sigurðsson, Ingi 2003: ‘Útbreiðsla og viðtökur alþýðlegra fræðslurita’. In: Loftur Guttormsson/Ingi Sigurðsson (ed.): Alþýðumenning á Íslandi 1830–1930. Reykjavík, 115–47.Google Scholar

  • Sigurðsson, Jón et al. 1851: ‘Nefndarálit í stjórnarskipunarmálinu’. In: Tíðindi frá þjóðfundi Íslendinga árið 1851, 496–517.Google Scholar

  • Sigurðsson, Jón 1860: ‘Um málefni Íslands’. In: Ný félagsrit 20, 1–22.Google Scholar

  • Vigfússon, Guðbrandur 1860: ‘Íslenzkar réttritunarreglur eptir Halldór Friðriksson’. In: Þjóðólfur 12-18/19, 69–71 and Þjóðólfur 12-24/25, 95–7.Google Scholar

  • Þorkellsson, Jón 1858: ‘Vatnsdæla saga’. In: Þjóðólfur 11-3/4, 10–2.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2018-10-17

Published in Print: 2018-10-25


Citation Information: European Journal of Scandinavian Studies, Volume 48, Issue 2, Pages 125–148, ISSN (Online) 2191-9402, ISSN (Print) 2191-9399, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ejss-2018-0013.

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