Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications

The Journal of Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences

4 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 0.72

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.248
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.542

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 58, Issue 2


Near-Perfect Reconstruction Oversampled Nonuniform Cosine-Modulated Filter Banks Based on Frequency Warping and Subband Merging

Marek Parfieniuk
  • Department of Digital Media and Computer Graphics, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45A, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Alexander Petrovsky
  • Department of Digital Media and Computer Graphics, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45A, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2012-07-04 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10177-012-0026-2

Near-Perfect Reconstruction Oversampled Nonuniform Cosine-Modulated Filter Banks Based on Frequency Warping and Subband Merging

A novel method for designing near-perfect reconstruction oversampled nonuniform cosine-modulated filter banks is proposed, which combines frequency warping and subband merging, and thus offers more flexibility than known techniques. On the one hand, desirable frequency partitionings can be better approximated. On the other hand, at the price of only a small loss in partitioning accuracy, both warping strength and number of channels before merging can be adjusted so as to minimize the computational complexity of a system. In particular, the coefficient of the function behind warping can be constrained to be a negative integer power of two, so that multiplications related to allpass filtering can be replaced with more efficient binary shifts. The main idea is accompanied by some contributions to the theory of warped filter banks. Namely, group delay equalization is thoroughly investigated, and it is shown how to avoid significant aliasing by channel oversampling. Our research revolves around filter banks for perceptual processing of sound, which are required to approximate the psychoacoustic scales well and need not guarantee perfect reconstruction.

Keywords: warped near-perfect reconstruction oversampled non-uniform cosine-modulated filter bank; allpass filter/transformation; subband/channel merging; frequency warping; critical bands; Bark scale

  • Recommendation ITU-R BS.1387-1 — Method for Objective Measurements of Perceived Audio Quality. International Telecommunications Union, 1999, ITU-R.Google Scholar

  • A. Karmakar, A. Kumar, and R. K. Patney, "Design of optimal wavelet packet trees based on auditory perception criterion," IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 240-243, Apr. 2007.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • A. Pandharipande and S. Dasgupta, "On biorthogonal nonuniform filter banks and tree structures," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1457-1467, Oct. 2002.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • W. Zhong, G. Shi, X. Xie, and X. Chen, "Design of linear-phase nonuniform filter banks with partial cosine modulation," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 3390-3395, Jun. 2010.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Z. Cvetković and J. D. Johnston, "Nonuniform oversampled filter banks for audio signal processing," IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 393-399, Sep. 2003.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • E. Galijašević and J. Kliewer, "Design of allpass-based non-uniform oversampled DFT filter banks," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing (ICASSP), vol. 2, Orlando, FL, 13-17 May 2002, pp. 1181-1184.Google Scholar

  • H. W. Löllmann and P. Vary, "Least-squares design of DFT filter-banks based on allpass transformation of higher order," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 2393-2398, Apr. 2010.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • X. Xie, S. Chan, and T. Yuk, "Design of linear-phase recombination nonuniform filter banks," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 2809-2814, Jul. 2006.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • J. Ogale and S. Ashok, "Cosine modulated non-uniform filter banks," Journal of Signal and Information Processing, vol. 2, pp. 178-183, 2011.Google Scholar

  • Y. Deng, V. Mathews, and B. Farhang-Boroujeny, "Low-delay nonuniform pseudo-QMF banks with application to speech enhancement," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 2110-2121, May 2007.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • J. Li, T. Q. Nguyen, and S. Tantaratana, "A simple design method for near-perfect-reconstruction nonuniform filter banks," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 2105-2109, Aug. 1997.Google Scholar

  • J. O. Smith III and J. S. Abel, "Bark and ERB bilinear transforms," IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 697-708, Nov. 1999.Google Scholar

  • P. Ghosh and S. Narayanan, "Bark frequency transform using an arbitrary order allpass filter," IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 543-546, Jun. 2010.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • T. Gülzow, A. Engelsberg, and U. Heute, "Comparison of a discrete wavelet transformation and nonuniform polyphase filterbank applied to spectral-subtraction speech enhancement," Signal Process., vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 5-19, Jan. 1998.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • G. Evangelista and S. Cavaliere, "Discrete frequency warped wavelets: Theory and applications," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 874-885, Apr. 1998.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • A. Petrovsky, M. Parfieniuk, and K. Bielawski, "Psychoacoustically motivated nonuniform cosine modulated polyphase filter bank," in Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop on Spectral Methods and Multirate Signal Process. (SMMSP), Toulouse, France, 7-8 Sep. 2002, pp. 95-101.Google Scholar

  • X. Zhang, L. Huang, and G. Evangelista, "Warped filter banks used in noisy speech recognition," in Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Innovative Computing, Information and Control (ICICIC), 7-9 Dec. 2009.Google Scholar

  • M. Livshitz, M. Parfieniuk, and A. Petrovsky, "Wideband CELP coder with multiband excitation and multilevel vector quantization based on reconfigurable codebook," Digital Signal Process. (KBWP, Moscow, Russia), no. 2, pp. 20-35, 2005, in Russian.Google Scholar

  • A. Borowicz, M. Parfieniuk, and A. Petrovsky, "An application of the warped discrete Fourier transform in the perceptual speech enhancement," Speech Comm., vol. 48, pp. 1024-1036, 2006.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • H. W. Löllmann and P. Vary, "Uniform and warped low delay filterbanks for speech enhancement," Speech Communication, vol. 49, no. 207, pp. 574-587, 2007.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • B. Shankar and A. Makur, "Allpass delay chain-based IIR PR filterbank and its application to multiple description subband coding," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 814-823, Apr. 2002.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • S. Caporale, L. De Marchi, and N. Speciale, "Frequency warping biorthogonal frames," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 2575-2584, Jun. 2011.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • W. H. Chin and B. Farhang-Boroujeny, "Subband adaptive filtering with real-valued subband signals for acoustic echo cancellation," IEE Proc.- Vis. Image Signal Process., vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 283-288, 2001.Google Scholar

  • A. Datar, A. Jain, and P. Sharma, "Design of Kaiser window based optimized prototype filter for cosine modulated filter banks," Signal Processing, vol. 90, pp. 1742-1749, 2010.Google Scholar

  • P. P. Vaidyanathan, Multirate Systems and Filter Banks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.Google Scholar

  • P. Vary, "Digital filter banks with unequal resolution," in Proc. EUSIPCO Short Communication Digest, Lausanne, Switzerland, Sep. 1980, pp. 41-42.Google Scholar

  • G. Doblinger, "An efficient algorithm for uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks," in Proc. of Int. Symp. on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), vol. 1, Singapore, Jun. 1991, pp. 646-649.Google Scholar

  • A. G. Constantinides, "Spectral transformations for digital filters," IEE Proc., vol. 117, no. 8, pp. 1585-1590, 1970.Google Scholar

  • M. Kappellan, B. Strauss, and P. Vary, "Flexible nonuniform filterbanks using allpass transformation of multiple order," in Proc. 8th European Signal Process. Conf. (EUSIPCO), vol. 3, Trieste, Italy, 7-13 Sep. 1996, pp. 1745-1748.Google Scholar

  • T. von Schroeter, "Frequency warping with arbitrary allpass maps," IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 116-118, May 1999.Google Scholar

  • M. Parfieniuk and A. Petrovsky, "Reduced complexity synthesis part of non-uniform near-perfect-reconstruction DFT filter bank based on all-pass transformation," in Proc. 16th European Conf. on Circuits Theory and Design (ECCTD), vol. III, Cracow, Poland, 1-4 Sep. 2003, pp. III-5-III-8.Google Scholar

  • H. W. Löllmann and P. Vary, "Parametric phase equalizers for warped filter-banks," in Proc. 14th European Signal Processing Conf. (EUSIPCO), Florence, Italy, 4-8 Sep. 2006.Google Scholar

  • J. M. de Haan, I. Claesson, and H. Gustafsson, "Least squares design of nonuniform filter banks with evaluation in speech enhancement," in Proc. Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Process. (ICASSP), vol. VI, Hong Kong, China, Apr. 2003, pp. 109-112.Google Scholar

  • B. Vo and S. Nordholm, "Non-uniform DFT filter bank design with semi-definite programming," in Proc. Int. Symp. Signal Process. Information Technology (ISSPIT), Darmstadt, Germany, 2003, pp. 42-45.Google Scholar

  • G. Kumar, P. Reddy, and B. Charles, "Design of non-uniform filter banks: Quadratic optimization with linear constraints," ARPN J. Engineering Applied Sciences, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 24-27, Jun. 2007.Google Scholar

  • M. Parfieniuk and A. Petrovsky, "Simple rule of selection of subsampling ratios for warped filter banks," in Proc. VIII Int. Conf. "Modern Communication Systems", Naroch, Belarus, 29 Sep.-3 Oct. 2003, pp. 130-134, haapec. Issue of Trans. Belarus. Eng. Acad., No. 1(15)/3.Google Scholar

  • E. Galijašević and J. Kliewer, "Non-uniform near-perfect-reconstruction oversampled DFT filter banks based on allpass transforms," in Proc. 9th IEEE DSP Workshop (DSP 2000), Hunt, TX, 15-18 Oct. 2000.Google Scholar

  • A. Piotrowski and M. Parfieniuk, Digital Filter Banks: Analysis, Synthesis, and Implementation for Multimedia Systems. Bialystok, Poland: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Bialostockiej, 2006, in Polish.Google Scholar

  • H. W. Löllmann and P. Vary, "Improved design of oversampled allpass transformed DFT filter-banks with near-perfect reconstruction," in Proc. 15th European Signal Process. Conf. (EUSIPCO), Poznan, Poland, 3-7 Sep. 2007, pp. 50-54.Google Scholar

  • S. K. Mitra and K. Hirano, "Digital all-pass networks," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 688-700, Sep. 1974.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • B. Scharf, "Critical bands," in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, J. Tobias, Ed. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1970, pp. 159-202.Google Scholar

  • C. D. Creusere and S. K. Mitra, "Efficient audio coding using perfect reconstruction noncausal IIR filter banks," IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Process., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 115-123, Mar. 1996.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • G. Evangelista and S. Cavaliere, "Time-varying frequency warping: Results and experiments," in Proc. 2nd COST G-6 Workshop on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx), Trondheim, Norway, 9-11 Dec. 1999, pp. 13-16.Google Scholar

  • M. Quélhas and A. Petraglia, "Optimum design of group delay equalizers," Digital Signal Processing, vol. 21, pp. 1-12, 2011.Google Scholar

  • C. Feldbauer and G. Kubin, "Critically sampled frequency-warped perfect reconstruction filter bank," in Proc. European Conf. on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD), vol. III, Cracow, Poland, 1-4 Sep. 2003, pp. III-109-III-112.Google Scholar

  • R. G. Vaughan, N. L. Scott, and D. R. White, "The theory of bandpass sampling," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1973-1984, Sep. 1991.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • P. Q. Hoang and P. P. Vaidyanathan, "Non-uniform multirate filter banks: Theory and design," in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Systems (ISCAS), Portland, OR, 8-11 May 1989, pp. 371-374.Google Scholar

  • J. D. Griesbach, M. R. Lightner, and D. M. Etter, "Subband adaptive filtering decimation constraints for oversampled nonuniform filterbanks," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 677-681, Oct. 2002.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2012-07-04

Published in Print: 2012-06-01

Citation Information: International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications, Volume 58, Issue 2, Pages 177–192, ISSN (Print) 0867-6747, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10177-012-0026-2.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Wei Zhong, Li Fang, Qin Zhang, and Long Ye
Signal, Image and Video Processing, 2017, Volume 11, Number 4, Page 689
Shin-Chi Lai, Chih-Hao Liu, Ling-Yi Wang, Shin-Hao Chen, and Ke-Horng Chen
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 2015, Volume 62, Number 6, Page 1572
A. Kumar, G.K. Singh, and S. Anurag
Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, 2015, Volume 27, Number 2, Page 158

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in