Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Open Engineering

formerly Central European Journal of Engineering

Editor-in-Chief: Noor, Ahmed

1 Issue per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing

Characteristics and potential applications of coarse clay fractions from Puolanka, Finland

Tiina Leiviskä
  • University of Oulu, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. BOX 4300, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
  • :
/ Seppo Gehör
  • University of Oulu, Department of Geosciences, University of Oulu, P.O. BOX 4300, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
  • :
/ Erkki Eijärvi
  • University of Oulu, Department of Geosciences, University of Oulu, P.O. BOX 4300, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
  • :
/ Arja Sarpola
  • University of Oulu, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. BOX 4300, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
  • :
/ Juha Tanskanen
  • University of Oulu, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. BOX 4300, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
  • :
Published Online: 2012-04-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13531-011-0067-9


Characterization of coarse fractions of kaolin clay from two locations in Puolanka (Pihlajavaara and Poskimäki) was performed in order to find potential applications for these materials in water and wastewater treatment as low-cost adsorbents or as a raw material for other uses. The effects of wet and dry fractionation methods and the annealing of the sample on the properties of the coarse fractions were studied. The coarse fractions contained mainly quartz, while the kaolinite content was considered low. The Poskimäki (PM) clay had a higher specific surface area (SSA) and cation exchange capacities (CEC) than the Pihlajavaara (PV) clay due to a higher amount of iron. Annealing (800°C) decreased the SSA and CEC. The fractionation method had only a minor effect on particle size distribution. PV and PM colloidal suspensions had a negative zeta potential at natural pH values. Very small amounts of contained elements (Al, Si, Ca, Mg, K, Cd, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ba) were dissolved from samples at natural pH values. PM clay could be utilized in water treatment for example as a raw material in iron oxide-coated sands. For this purpose, the wet fractionated samples had a higher content of iron than the dry fractionated samples.

Keywords: Clay, Fractionation; Characterization; Surface Area; Zeta Potential; Dissolution

  • [1] Gupta S.S., Bhattacharyya K.G., Immobilization of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions on kaolinite and montmorillonite surfaces from aqueous medium, J. Environ. Manage., 2008, 87, 46–58 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.01.048 [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • [2] Nylund J., Sundberg A., Sundberg K., Dissolved and colloidal substances from mechamical pulp suspension — Interactions influencing the sterical stability, Colloids Surf., 2007, A301, 335–340 [Web of Science]

  • [3] Bhattacharyya K.G., Gupta S.S., Adsorption of a few heavy metals on natural and modified kaolinite and montmorillonite: A review, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 2008, 140, 114–131 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2007.12.008 [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • [4] Boujelben N., Bouzid J., Elouear Z., Feki M., et al., Phosphorus removal from aqueous solution using iron coated natural and engineered sorbents, J. Hazard. Mater., 2008, 151, 103–110 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.05.057 [Crossref] [Web of Science]

  • [5] Boujelben N., Bouzid J., Elouear Z., Adsorption of nickel and copper onto natural iron-oxide coated sand from aqueous solutions: Study in single and binary systems, J. Hazard. Mater., 2009, 163, 376–382 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.128 [Crossref]

  • [6] Sabir B.B., Wild S., Bai J., Metakaolin and calcined clays as pozzolans for concrete: a review, Cem. Concr. Compos., 2001, 23, 441–454 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0958-9465(00)00092-5 [Crossref]

  • [7] Chapman H.D., Cation-exchange Capacity, In: Black C.A. (ed), Method of Soil Analysis, Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, Wisconsin, 1965

  • [8] Niskanen R., Jaakkola A., Estimation of cation exchange capacity in routine soil testing, J. Agric. Sci. Finl., 1986, 58, 1–7

  • [9] Waychunas G.A., Kim C.S., Banfield J.F., Nanoparticulate iron oxide minerals in soils and sediments: unique properties and contaminant scavenging mechanisms, J. Nanopart. Res., 2005, 7, 409–433 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11051-005-6931-x [Crossref]

  • [10] Suraj G., Iyer C.S.P., Lalithambika M., Adsorption of cadmium and copper by modified kaolinites, Appl. Clay Sci., 1998, 13, 293–306 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-1317(98)00043-X [Crossref]

  • [11] Harland C.E., Ion exchange: Theory and Practice, 2nd ed., Royal Society of Chemistry Paperbacks, Cambridge, UK., 1994

  • [12] Langmuir D., Aqueous Environmental Geohemistry, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1997

  • [13] Buffle J., Complexation Reactions in Aquatic Systems, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, U.K., 1988

  • [14] Shvarzman A., Kovler K., Schamban I., Grader, G., et al., Influence of chemical and phase composition of mineral admixtures on their pozzolanic acitivity, Adv. Cement Res., 2001, 13, 1–7 http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/adcr.2001.13.1.1 [Crossref]

  • [15] Hanna K., Adsorption of aromatic carboxylate compounds on the surface of synthesized iron oxide-coated sands, Appl. Geochem., 2007, 22, 2045–2053 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2007.05.005 [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • [16] Alkan M., Demirbas Ö., Dogan M., Electrokinetic properties of kaolinite in mono- and multivalent electrolyte solutions, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 2005, 83, 51–59 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2005.03.011 [Crossref]

  • [17] Kosmulski M., The pH-dependent surface charging and points of zero charge V. Update, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2011, 353, 1–15 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2010.08.023 [Crossref]

  • [18] Xu Y., Axe L., Synthesis and characterization of iron oxide-coated silica and its effect on metal adsorption, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2005, 282, 11–19 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.08.057 [Crossref]

  • [19] Schroth B.K., Sposito G., Surface charge properties of kaolinite, Clays Clay Miner., 1997, 45: 85–91 http://dx.doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.1997.0450110 [Crossref]

  • [20] Gregory J., Duan J., Hydrolyzing metal salts as coagulants, Pure Appl. Chem., 2001, 73, 2017–2026 http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/pac200173122017 [Crossref]

  • [21] Gupta V.K., Saini V.K., Jain N., Adsorption of As (III) from aqueous solutions by iron oxide-coated sand, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2005, 288, 55–60 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2005.02.054 [Crossref]

  • [22] Guo H., Stüben D., Berner Z., Arsenic removal from water using natural iron mineral-quartz sand columns, Sci. Total Environ., 2007, 377, 142–151 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.02.001 [Crossref]

  • [23] Ding C., Yang X., Liu W., Chang Y., et al., Removal of natural organic matter using surfactant-modified iron oxide-coated sand, J. Hazard. Mater., 2010, 174, 567–572 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.089 [Crossref]

  • [24] Song S., Lopez-Valdivieso A., Hernandez-Campos D.J., Peng C., et al., Arsenic removal from high-arsenic water by enhanced coagulation with ferric ions and coarse calcite, Water Res., 2006, 40, 364–372 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.09.046 [Crossref]

  • [25] Özacar M., Sengil I.A., Enhancing phosphate removal from wastewater by using polyelectrolytes and clay injection, J. Hazard. Mater., 2003, 100, 131–146 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(03)00070-0 [Crossref]

  • [26] Shen Y., Treatment of low-turbidity water by sweep coagulation using clay, Sep. Sci. Technol., 2002, 37, 2739–2744 http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/SS-120004462 [Crossref]

Published Online: 2012-04-11

Published in Print: 2012-06-01

Citation Information: Open Engineering. Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 239–247, ISSN (Online) 2391-5439, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13531-011-0067-9, April 2012

© 2012 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Tiina Leiviskä, Arja Sarpola, Eetu Heikkinen, and Juha Tanskanen
Desalination and Water Treatment, 2013, Volume 51, Number 34-36, Page 6837

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.