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Open Engineering

formerly Central European Journal of Engineering

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Ultrasonic detection of spall damage induced by low-velocity repeated impact

1Department of Vehicle and Mechanical Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, 468-8502, Japan

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokisocho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555, Japan

3Graduate Student, Department of Transportation Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, 468-8502, Japan

4Nordic Hysitron Laboratory, Department of Materials Science, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, FI-00076, AALTO, Finland

© 2012 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Citation Information: Open Engineering. Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 650–655, ISSN (Online) 2391-5439, DOI: 10.2478/s13531-012-0013-5, September 2012

Publication History

Published Online:


This paper address the examination of spall damage in medium carbon steel subjected to a repeated impact testing. The experiments were performed well below the threshold spall-stress of 2.6 GPa and the damage introduced in the subsurface volume was investigated using the low frequency scanning acoustic microscopy. Based on B- and C-scan images (the images taken along and perpendicular to the impact surface) we made a qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluation of the damage type (voids in a ductile material or cracks in a brittle one) and its distribution. We found the spall damage development dependent on the amplitude and the duration of the stress pulses. In particular, we proved that the high, long stress pulses induce damage that resembles tensile failure of material, in which voids or cracks nucleate along the spall plane to form macro-cracks. This explains why spall-damage is not seen when the first impact is below the characteristic threshold spall-stress. However, when the tests consist of more than four impacts the spall damage is produced already under stress below the threshold-value.

Keywords: Spall damage; Repeated impact; Low-velocity plate impact test; Ultrasonic detection; Nondestructive inspection

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