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Open Engineering

formerly Central European Journal of Engineering

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Damage evolution in GLARE fibre-metal laminate under repeated low-velocity impact tests

Freddy Morinière
  • Structural Integrity & Composites Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629HS, Delft, The Netherlands
  • Email:
/ René Alderliesten
  • Structural Integrity & Composites Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629HS, Delft, The Netherlands
  • Email:
/ Mehdi Tooski
  • Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Pardis St., Molasadra Ave., Vanak SQ., Tehran, Iran
  • Email:
/ Rinze Benedictus
  • Structural Integrity & Composites Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629HS, Delft, The Netherlands
  • Email:
Published Online: 2012-09-27 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13531-012-0019-z


An experimental study was performed on the repeated low-velocity impact behaviour of GLARE. Damage evolution in the material constituents was characterised with successive number of impacts. Records were correlated with visual inspection, ultrasound C-scan and chemical etching. The stiffness of the plate varied when cumulating the number of impacts. Damage accumulation was limited thanks to the synthesis of unidirectional composite and metal. The glass/epoxy plies with high elastic tensile strength could withstand several impacts before perforation despite delamination growth in the vicinity of the impacted area. The damage tolerant aluminium layers prevented the penetration of the projectile and avoided the expansion of delamination. This efficient mechanism preserved the structural integrity of GLARE until first aluminium cracking at the non-impacted side. Among the different failure modes, plate deformation absorbed most of the impact energy. The findings will support the development of a generic quasi-static analytical model and numerical methods.

Keywords: Low-velocity impact; GLARE 5 FML; Delamination; C-scan; Chemical etching

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About the article

Published Online: 2012-09-27

Published in Print: 2012-12-01

Citation Information: Open Engineering, ISSN (Online) 2391-5439, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13531-012-0019-z. Export Citation

© 2012 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

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