Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …


Ed. by Uyar, Tamer

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Fabrication and characterization of air-impedance electrospun polydioxanone templates

Gretchen S. Selders / Allison E. Fetz / Shannon L. Speer / Gary L. Bowlin
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
  • 330 Engineering Technology Building Department of Biomedical Engineering, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-04-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/esp-2016-0003


Electrospinning, a fabrication technique used to create non-woven, porous templates from natural and synthetic polymers, is commonly used in tissue engineering because it is highly tailorable. However, traditional electrospinning creates restrictive pore sizes that limit the required cell migration. Therefore, tissue engineering groups have sought to enhance and regulate porosity of tissue engineering templates. Air-impedance electrospinning generates templates with tailorable, patterned areas of low and high density fiber deposition. Here we demonstrate an improved air-impedance electrospinning system, consisting of a newly designed funnel equipped to hold changeable porous deposition plates and administer air flow in a confined and focused manner, with parameters that maintain template integrity. In this preliminary study, we quantify the increase in porosity of polydioxanone templates with use of traditional fiber and pore analysis as well as with mercury porosimetry. Additionally, we validate the system’s significance in fabricating enhanced porosity templates that maintain their mechanical properties (i.e. elastic modulus, tensile strength, and suture retention strength) despite the deliberate increase in porosity. This is of exceptional value to the template’s integrity and efficacy as these parameters can be further optimized to induce the desired template porosity, strength, and texture for a given application.

Keywords: electrospinning; air flow; air-impedance; template; porosity; mechanical integrity; characterization


  • [1] C.P. Barnes, S.A. Sell, E.D. Boland, D.G. Simpson, G.L. Bowlin, Nanofiber technology: designing the next generation of tissue engineering scaffolds, Adv Drug Deliv Rev 59, 2007, 1413.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [2] M.J. McClure, P.S.Wolfe, S.A. Sell, D.G. Simpson, G.L. Bowlin, The Use of Air-flow Impedance to Control Fiber Deposition Patterns during Electrospinning, Biomaterials 33, 2012, 771.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] Q.P. Pham, U. Sharma, A.G. Mikos, Electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers for tissue engineering applications: a review, Tissue Eng 12, 2006, 435.Google Scholar

  • [4] P.A. Madurantakam, C.P. Cost, D.G. Simpson, G.L. Bowlin, Science of nanofibrous scaffold fabrication: strategies for next generation tissue-engineering scaffolds, Nanomedicine (Lond) 4, 2009, 193.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5] B.A. Blakeney, A. Tambralli, J.M. Anderson, A. Andukuri, D.J. Lim, D.R. Dean, et al., Cell infiltration and growth in a low density, uncompressed three-dimensional electrospun nanofibrous template, Biomaterials 32, 2011, 1583.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6] M.F. Leong, W.Y. Chan, K.S. Chian, Cryogenic electrospinning: proposed mechanism, process parameters and its use in engineering of bilayered tissue structures, Nanomedicine 8, 2013, 555.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [7] M.C. Phipps, W.C. Clem, J.M. Grunda, G.A. Clines, S.L. Bellis, Increasing the pore sizes of bone-mimetic electrospun scaffolds comprised of polycaprolactone, collagen I and hydroxyapatite to enhance cell infiltration, Biomaterials 33, 2012, 524.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8] B.M. Baker, A.O. Gee, R.B. Metter, A.S. Nathan, R.A. Marklein, J.A. Burdick, et al., The potential to improve cell infiltration in composite fiber-aligned electrospun scaffolds by the selective removal of sacrificial fibers, Biomaterials 29, 2008, 2348.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [9] K. Wang, M. Xu, M. Zhu, H. Su, H. Wang, D. Kong, et al. Creation of macropores in electrospun silk fibroin scaffolds using sacrificial PEO-microparticles to enhance cellular infiltration, J Biomed Mater Res Part A 101A, 2013, 3474.Google Scholar

  • [10] H. Kang, Y. Tabata, Y. Ikada, Fabrication of porous gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering, Biomaterials 20, 1999, 1339.Google Scholar

  • [11] C. Vaquette, J.J. Cooper-White, Increasing electrospun scaffold pore size with tailored collectors for improved cell penetration, Acta Biomater 7, 2011, 2544.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [12] S. Soliman, S. Sant, J.W. Nichol, M. Khabiry, E. Traversa, A. Khademhosseini, Controlling the porosity of fibrous scaffolds by modulating the fiber diameter and packing density. J Biomed Mater Res A 96, 2011, 566.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [13] T. Kim, H. Chung, T. Park, Macroporous and nanofibrous hyaluronic acid/collagen hybrid scaffold fabricated by concurrent electrospinning and deposition/leaching of salt particles, Acta Biomater 4, 2008, 1611.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [14] S. Zmora, R. Glicklis, S. Cohen, Tailoring the pore architecture in 3-D alginate scaffolds by controlling the freezing regime during fabrication, Biomaterials 23, 2002, 4087.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15] Y. Zhang, H. Ouyang, C.T. Lim, S. Ramakrishna, A.M. Huang, Electrospinning of gelatin fibers and gelatin/PCL composite fibrous scaffolds, J Biomed Mater Res Part B 72, 2005, 156.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16] F.K. Chaparro, M.E.Matusicky, M.J. Allen, J.J. Lannutti, Biomimetic microstructural organization during suture retention strength evaluation of electrospun vascular scaffolds, Biomed Mater 1, 2015, 72.Google Scholar

  • [17] Y. Mine, H. Mitsui, Y. Oshima, Y. Noishiki, M. Nakai, S. Sano, Suture Retention Strength of Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) Graft, Acta Med Okayama 64, 2010, 121.Google Scholar

  • [18] S.A. Sell, M.J.McClure, C.P. Barnes, B.H.Walpoth, D.G. Simpson, G.L. Bowlin, Electrospun Polydioxanone-elastin blends: potential for bioresorbable vascular grafts, BiomedMater 1, 2006, 18.Google Scholar

  • [19] G.D. DuRaine, B. Arzi, J.K. Lee, C.A. Lee, D.J. Responte, K.A. Athanasiou, Biomechanical evaluation of suture-holding properties of native and tissue-engineered articular cartilage, Biomech Model Mechanobiol 14, 2015, 73.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-12-24

Revised: 2016-03-09

Accepted: 2016-03-16

Published Online: 2016-04-26

Published in Print: 2015-04-26

Citation Information: Electrospinning, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 20–30, ISSN (Online) 2391-7407, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/esp-2016-0003.

Export Citation

© 2017. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in