Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

European Countryside

The Journal of Mendel University in Brno

4 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 0.69

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.190
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.896

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 4, Issue 2


High nature value (HNV) farming and the management of upland diversity. A review

Eileen O'Rourke / Nadine Kramm
Published Online: 2012-04-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10091-012-0018-3

High nature value (HNV) farming and the management of upland diversity. A review

High nature value (HNV) farming systems play a crucial role in the conservation of biodiversity across large tracks of the European countryside. The socio-economic viability of these low intensity farming systems is in question, with many facing the stark choice of either abandonment or intensification. This review paper explores the concept of HNV farming and examines the links between grazing management and biodiversity conservation in European HNV upland environments. The paper ends with an analysis of the implications of European agricultural policy for HNV farmland, along with future trends and challenges for HNV farming systems.

Keywords: High Nature Value Farming; uplands; biodiversity; grazing management; multifunctionality

  • Albon, S. D., Brewer, M. J., O'Brien, S., Nolan, A. J. & Cope, D. (2007). Quantifying the grazing impacts associated with different herbivores on rangelands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44(6), 1176-1187. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01318.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Aich, A. & Waterhouse, A. (1999). Small ruminants in environmental conservation. Small Ruminant Research, 34(3), 271-287. Doi: 10.1016/S0921-4488(99)00079-6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Baldock, D., Beaufoy, G., Brouwer, F. & Godeschalk, F. (1996). Farming at the Margins: Abandonment or Redeployment of Agricultural Land in Europe. London/The Hague: Institute for European Environmental Policy Agricultural Economics Research Institute.Google Scholar

  • Baldock, D. (1998). Indicators for high nature value farming systems in Europe. In: F. Brouwer & R. Crabtree (Eds.), Environmental indicators and agricultural policy (pp. 121-136). Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar

  • Ball, D., Dales, J., Sheail, J. & Heal, O. (1982). Vegetation Change in Upland Landscapes. Cambridge, UK: Institute of Terrestrial Ecology.Google Scholar

  • Baudry, J. (1991). Ecological consequences of grazing extensification and land abandonment: Role of interactions between environment, society and techniques. CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes - Serie Seminaires, 15, 13-19.Google Scholar

  • Beaufoy, G., Baldock, D. & Clark, J. (1994). The Nature of Farming: Low Intensity Farming in Nine European Countries. London, UK: Institute for European Environmental Policy.Google Scholar

  • Beaufoy, G. (2008). HNV Farming - Explaining the Concept and Interpreting EU and National Policy Commitments. European Forum on Nature Conservation and Pastoralism Stratford-upon-Avon. http://www.efncp.org/download/EFNCP-HNV-farming-concept.pdf

  • Beaufoy, G. & Cooper, T. (2009). The Application of the High Nature Value Impact Indicator 2007-2013. (Guidance document). European evaluation network for rural Development. http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/rurdev/eval/hnv/guidance_en.pdf

  • Berkes, F. & Folke, F. (1998). Linking social and ecological systems for resilience and sustainability. In: Berkes, F., Folke, C., & Colding, J. (Eds.), Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Bignal, E. M., McCracken, D. J., & Curtis, D. J. eds., (1994). Nature Conservation and Pastoralism in Europe. Peterborough, UK: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.Google Scholar

  • Bignal, E. M. & McCracken, D. I., (1996). Low-intensity farming systems in the conservation of the countryside. Journal of Applied Ecology 33, 413-424.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bignal, E. M. & McCracken, D. I. (2000). The Nature conservation Value of European Traditional Farming Systems. Environmental Reviews 8(3), 149-171. Doi: 10.1139/a00-009.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bignal, E. M. (1998). Using an ecological understanding of farmland to reconcile nature conservation requirements, EU agriculture policy and world trade agreements. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35(6): 949-954. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.1998.tb00013.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bignal, E. M. & McCracken, E. I. (1996). The ecological resources of European farmland. In: M. Whitby (ed.), The European Environment and CAP Reform. Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar

  • Blacksell, M. (2010). Agriculture and Landscape in 21st Century Europe: The Post- Communist Transition. European Countryside, 2(1), 13-24. Doi: 10.2478/v10091-010-0002-8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Brak, B. H., Hilarides, L., Elbersen, B. S. & van Wingerden, W. K. (2004). Extensive livestock systems and biodiversity: The case of Islay. Alterra-rapport 1100. Wageningen: Alterra.Google Scholar

  • Brodt, S., Klonsky, K. & Tourte, L., (2006). Farmer goals and management styles: Implications for advancing biologically based agriculture. Agricultural Systems. 89(1), 90-105. Doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2005.08.005.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Burel, F. & Baudry, J. (1995). Species biodiversity in changing agricultural landscapes: a case study in the Pays d'Auge, France. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 55(3), 193-200. Doi: 10.1016/0167-8809(95)00614-X.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Campagne, P., Carrere, G. & Valceschini, E. (1990). Three Agricultural Regions of France: Three types of pluriactivity. Journal of Rural Studies, 6(4), 415-422. Doi: 10.1016/0743-0167(90)90055-D.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chamberlain, D. E., Fuller, R. J., Bunce, R. G. H., Duckworth, J. C. & Shrubb, M. (2000). Changes in the abundance of farmland birds in relation to the timing of agricultural intensification in England and Wales. Journal of Applied Ecology 37(5), 771-788. Doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2664.2000.00548.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cooper, T., Hart, K. & Baldock, D. (2009). The Provision of Public Goods Through Agriculture in the European Union. London: Institute for European and Environmental Policy.Google Scholar

  • Coordination Paysanne Europeenne (CPE) (2003). CAP Reform: ‘A scandal’. (Available online at: http://www.southcentre.org

  • COM (1998) 42 final Communication of the European Comisión to the Council and to the Parliament on a European Community Biodiversity Strategy.Google Scholar

  • COM (2009) Composite Report on the Conservation Status of Habitat Types and Species as required under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. http://biodiversity.eionet.europa.eu/article17

  • Conti, G. & Fagarazzi, L. (2006). Sustainable mountain development and the key-issue of abandonment of marginal rural areas. The European Journal of Planning, www.planum.net. www.planum.net

  • Correira, T. (1993). Land abandonment: changes in the land use patterns around the Mediterranean basin. Cahiers Options Mediterraneennes, 1, 97-112.Google Scholar

  • Critchley, C. N. R., Burke, M. J. W. & Stevens, D. P. (2003). Conservation of lowland semi-natural grassland in the UK: a review of botanical monitoring results from agri-environment schemes. Biological Conservation 115(2), 263-278. Doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00146-0.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dennis, P. (2003). Sensitivity of upland arthropod diversity to livestock grazing, vegetation structure and landform. Food, Agriculture and Environment 1(2), 301-307.Google Scholar

  • Dennis, P., Doering, J., Stockan, J. A., Rees, M. E., Vale, J. E. & Sibbald, A. R., (2004). Consequences for biodiversity of reducing inputs to upland temperate pastures: Effects on beetles (coleopteran) of cessation of nitrogen fertilizer application and reductions in stocking rates of sheep. Grass and Forage Science, 59(2), 121-135. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2494.2004.00412.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • DGL (2005). Land Abandonment, Biodiversity and the CAP. Utrecht: Government Services for Land and Water Management of the Netherlands (DGL).Google Scholar

  • Dodgshon, R. A. & Olsson, G. A. (2006). Heather Moorland in the Scottish Highlands: The History of a Cultural Landscape, 1600-1880. Journal of Historical Geography, 32(1), 21-37. Doi: 10.1016/j.jhg.2005.01.002.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dufour, A., Mauz, I., Rémy, J., Bernard, C., Dobremez, L., Havet, A., Pauthenet, Y., Pluvinage, J., & Tachakérian, E., (2007). Multifunctionality in Agriculture and its Agents: Regional Comparisons. Sociologia Ruralis, 47(4), 316-342. Doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9523.2007.00444.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • EFNCP - European Forum on Nature Conservation and Pastoralism, Bird Life International, Butterfly Conservation Europe, WWF (2010). CAP Reform 2013: Last chance to stop the decline of Europe's High Nature Value farming? Retrieved from ( www.efncp.org/high-nature-value-farmland/cap-reform-2013/

  • English Nature (2001). The upland management handbook. Peterborough: English Nature.Google Scholar

  • European Environment Agency (EEA) (2004). High Nature Value Farmland: Characteristics, trends and policy challenges. Luxembourg: Office of Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar

  • European Environment Agency (EEA) HNV Map (2010). Retrieved from ( http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/approximate-distribution-of-hnv-farmland

  • Evans, D. M., Redpath, S. M., Elston, D. A., Evans, S. A., Mitchell, R. J. & Dennis, P. (2006). To graze or not to graze? Sheep, voles, forestry and nature conservation in the British uplands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43(3), 499-505. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01158.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Evans, N., Morris, C. & Winter, M. (2002). Conceptualizing Agriculture: A critique of post-productivism as the new orthodoxy. Progress in Human Geography, 26(3), 313-332. Doi: 10.1191/0309132502ph372ra.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Feehan, J., Gillmor, D., & Culleton, N. (2002). The impact of the Rural Environment protection Scheme (REPS) on plant and insect diversity. Irish Journal of Agri-Environmental Research, 2.Google Scholar

  • Fielding, A. H. & Haworth, P. F. (1999). Upland Habitats: Habitat Guide. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Finn, J. A., Bartolini, F., Kurz, I., Bourke, D., & Viaggi, D. (2009). Ex post environmental evaluation of agri-environment schemes using experts' judgements and multicriteria analysis. Journal of Environmental Management and Planning, 52(5), 717-737. Doi: 10.1080/09640560902958438.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fuller, R. J. (1996). Relationships between grazing and birds with particular reference to sheep in the British uplands. Report No. 164, Thetford: British Trust for Ornithology.Google Scholar

  • Gellrich, M., Baur, P., Koch, B. & Zimmermann, N. E. (2007). Agricultural land abandonment and natural forest re-growth in the Swiss mountains: A spatially explicit economic analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 118(1-4), 93-100. Doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2006.05.001.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gellrich, M. & Zimmermann, N. E. (2007). Investigating the regional-scale pattern of agricultural land abandonment in the Swiss mountains: A spatial statistical modelling approach. Landscape and Urban Planning, 79(1), 65-76. Doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2006.03.004.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gordin, I. J. & Iason, G. R. (1989). Foraging strategy of ruminants: Its significance to vegetation utilization and management. MULRI Annual Report 1988-89 (pp. 34-41).Google Scholar

  • Grinfelde, I. & Mathijs, E. (2003). Agricultural land abandonment in Latvia: an econometric analysis of farmer's choice. Leuven: Centre for Agricultural and Environmental Economics. Catholic University of Leuven.Google Scholar

  • Grant, S. A. & Armstrong, H. M. (1993). Grazing ecology and conservation of heather moorland: the development of models as aids to management. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2(1), 79-94. Doi: 10.1007/BF00055105.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Green, B. H. & Vos, W. (2001). Managing old landscapes and making new ones. In: Green, B. H. & Vos, W. (eds.) Threatened landscapes: conserving cultural landscapes. London: Spon Press.Google Scholar

  • Grime, J. P. (1973). Competitive exclusion in herbaceous vegetation. Nature. 242 (5396), 344-347. Doi: 10.1038/242344a0.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Grime, J. P. (1979). Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. Chichester: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar

  • Hanley, N., Davies, A., Angelopoulos, K., Hamilton, A., Ross, A., Trinch, D. & Watson, F. (2008). Economic determinants of biodiversity change over a 400-year period in the Scottish uplands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45(6), 1557-1565. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01570.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hester, A. (1996). Overgrazing in Upland Habitats: A literature Review. Report to Countryside Council for Wales. Aberdeen: Macaulay Research/Consultancy Services.Google Scholar

  • Hill, M. O., Evans, D. F. & Bell, S. A. (1992). Long-term effects of excluding sheep from hill pastures in North Wales. Journal of Ecology, 80(1), 1-13.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hopkins, J. J. (1991). Vegetation structure and the conservation of wild plants and animals. In: D. J. Curtis, E. M. Bignal & M. A. Curtis (eds.), Birds and Pastoral Agriculture in Europe (pp.12-18). Peterborough: Scottish Chough Study Group.Google Scholar

  • Jones, G. (2008). Small Farms - major embarrassment or key to policy delivery? La Caňada, No. 22.Google Scholar

  • Konold, W. (1998). Landnutzung und Naturschutz in Auen - Gegensatz oder sinnvolle Kombination. Wasser & Boden 50, 50-54.Google Scholar

  • Kissling-Naef, I., Volken, T., & Bisang, K. (2002). Common property and natural resources in the Alps: the decay of management structures. Forest Policy and Economics 4(2), 135-147. Doi: 10.1016/S1389-9341(02)00013-8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kleijn, D. & Sutherland, W. J. (2003). How effective are European agri-environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity? Journal of Applied Ecology, 40(6), 947-969. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2003.00868.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kramm, N. (2009). High Nature Value (HNV) Farming Systems under Diverse Policy Agendas. BioUp Project Report, Department of Geography, University College Cork.Google Scholar

  • Kramm, N., Anderson, R., O'Rourke, E., Emmerson, M., O'Halloran, J. & Chisholm, N., (2010). Framing the Iveragh Uplands: A Tale of humans and nature. University College Cork.Google Scholar

  • Kristensen, K., Thenail, S. C. & Kristensen, S. P. (2004). Landscape changes in agrarian landscapes in the 1990s: the interaction between farmers and the farmed landscape. A case study from Jutland, Denmark. Journal of Environmental Management, 71(3), 231-244. Doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.03.003.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kuiters, A. T. (2002). Hoofed animals in nature areas: theory and practice versus research. Vakbad Natuurbeheer, 41, 21-23.Google Scholar

  • Lobley, M., & Potter, C. (2004). Agricultural Change and Re-structuring: Recent evidence from a survey of agricultural households in England. Journal of Rural Studies. 20(4), 499-510. Doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2004.07.001.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Luick, R. (1998). Ecological and socio-economic implications of livestock-keeping systems on extensive grasslands in south-western Germany. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35(6), 979-982. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.1998.tb00018.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MacDonald, A., Stevens, P., Armstrong, H., Immirzi, P., & Reynolds, P. (1998). A Guide to Upland Habitats: Surveying Land Management Impacts. Edinburgh: Scottish Natural Heritage.Google Scholar

  • MacDonald, D., Crabtree, J. R., Wiesinger, G., Dax, T., Stamou, N., Fleury, P., Gutierrez, L. & Gibon, A., (2000). Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: Environmental consequences and policy responses. Journal of Environmental Management. 59(1), 47-69. Doi: 10.1006/jema.1999.0335.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Marsden, T. (1999). Rural futures: the consumption countryside and its regulation. Sociologia Ruralis, 39(4), 501-520. Doi: 10.1111/1467-9523.00121.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Marsden, T., Banks, J. & Bristow, G. (2002). The Social Management of Rural Nature: Understanding agrarian based rural development. Environment and Planning A, 34(5), 809-825. Doi: 10.1068/a3427.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • McMahon, B. J., Helden, A., Anderson, A., Sheridan, H., Kinsella, A. & Purvis, G. (2010). Interactions between livestock systems and biodiversity in South-East Ireland. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 139(1-2), 232-238. Doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2010.08.008.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Miles, J., (1988). Vegetation and soil change in the uplands. In: M. B. Usher & D. B. Thompson (eds.), Ecological Change in the Uplands (pp. 57-70). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar

  • Morris, C., Evans, N. (1999). Research on the geography of agricultural change: Redundant or revitalised. Area, 31(4), 349-358. Doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.1999.tb00101.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mottet, A., Ladet, S., Coque, N. & Gibon, A. (2006). Agricultural land-use change and its drivers in mountain landscapes: A case study in the Pyrenees. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 114(2-4), 296-310. Doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2005.11.017.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Murdoch, J., Lowe, P., Ward, N. & Marsden, T. (2003). The Differentiated Countryside. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Nowicki, P. L. (2004). Jointness of production as a market concept. In: F. Brouwer (ed.), Sustaining Agriculture and the Rural Environment. Governance, policy and multifunctionality (pp.36-55). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar

  • O'Rourke, E. (2006). Biodiversity and land use change on the Causse Méjan, France. Biodiversity and Conservation. 15(8), 2611-2626. Doi: 10.1007/s10531-005-5402-0.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • O'Rourke, E. & Kramm, N. (2009). Changes in the Management of the Irish Uplands: A case-study from the Iveragh Peninsula. European Countryside. 1 (1), 53-69. Doi: 10.2478/v10091-009-0005-5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Paracchini, M. L., Petersen, J-E., Hoogeveen, Y., Bamps, C., Burfield, I. & van Swaay, C. (2008). High nature value farmland in Europe. An estimate of the distribution patterns on the basis of land cover and biodiversity data. European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar

  • Plieninger, T., Hoechtl, F., & Spek, T. (2006). Traditional land-use and nature conservation in European rural landscapes. Environmental Science and Policy, 9(4), 317-321. Doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2006.03.001.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Potter, C. & Lobley, M. (1998). Landscapes and livelihoods: environmental protection and agricultural support in the wake of Agenda 2000. Landscape Research, 23(3), 223-236. Doi: 10.1080/01426399808706542.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Potter, C. (2004). Multifunctionality as an agricultural and rural policy concept. In: Brouwer, F. (ed.) Sustaining agriculture and the rural environment. Governance, Policy and Multifunctionality (pp.15-35). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar

  • Potter, C. & Tilzey, M. (2005). Agricultural policy discourse in the European post-Fordist transition: Neoliberalism, neomercantilism and multifunctionality. Progress in Human Geography 29(5), pp. 581-600. Doi: 10.1191/0309132505ph569oa.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Poux, X. (2010a). Public goods as a vehicle for integrating biodiversity into agricultural (and other) policies: Opportunities and risks. La Caňada, 25, 5-6.Google Scholar

  • Poux, X. (2010b). Why biodiversity should top the CAP reform agenda. La Caňada, 24, 2-4.Google Scholar

  • Primdahl, J., Vesterager, J. P., Finn, J. A., Vlahos, G., Kristensen, L., & Vejre, H. (2010). Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(6), 1245-1254. Doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.12.012.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Redford, K. H. & Adams, W. M. (2009). Payment for Ecosystem Services and the Challenge of Saving Nature. Conservation Biology, 23(4), 785-787. Doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01271.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Riedel, J. L., Casasus, I. & Bernues, A. (2007). Sheep farming intensification and utilization of natural resources in Mediterranean pastoral agro-ecosystems. Livestock Science 111 (1-2), 153-163. Doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2006.12.013.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rook, A. J., Dumont, B., Isselstein, J., Osoro, K., WallisDeVries, M. F., Parente, G. & Mills, J. (2004). Matching type of livestock to desired biodiversity outcomes in pastures - a review. Biological Conservation, 119(2), 137-150. Doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2003.11.010.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rundlöf, M., Nilsson, H., Smith, H. G. (2008). Interacting effects of farming practice and landscape context on bumble bees. Biological Conservation, 141(2), 417-426. Doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2007.10.011.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Selfra, T., Fish, R., Winter, M. (2010). Farming Livelihoods and Landscapes: Tensions in Rural Development and Environmental Regulation. Landscape Research, 35(6), 595-612. Doi: 10.1080/01426397.2010.514043.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Short, C. (2000). Common land and ELMS: a need for policy innovation in England and Wales. Land Use Policy, 17(2), 121-133. Doi: 10.1016/S0264-8377(00)00007-7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Strijker, D. (2005). Marginal lands in Europe - causes of decline. Basic and Applied Ecology, 6(2), 99-106. Doi: 10.1016/j.baae.2005.01.001.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sullivan, C., Sheehy Skeffington, M., Gormally, M. J. & Finn, J. A. (2010). The ecological status of grasslands on lowland farmlands in western Ireland and implications for grassland classification and nature value assessment. Biological Conservation 143(6), 1529-1539. Doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.03.035.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Swales, V., Eaton, R., Castan Broto, V., Deane, R., Warmington, B., Parker, S., & Rayment, M. (2004). An assessment of the impact of hill farming in England on the economic, environmental and social sustainability of the uplands and more widely. A study for Defra (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). IEEP, London.Google Scholar

  • Thompson, D. B. A., MacDonald, A. J., Marsden, J. H. & Galbraith, C. A., (1995). Upland heather moorland in Great Britain: a review of international importance, vegetation change and some objectives for nature conservation. Biological Conservation. 71(2), 163-178. Doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(94)00043-P.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Turenne, J-F. (1991). Research approaches on landscape pattern dynamics in European rural areas. Unesco MAB programme. Options Méditerranénnes, 15, 135-138.Google Scholar

  • Usher, M. B. & Thompson, D. B. (1988). Eds., Ecological Change in the Uplands. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar

  • Van der Ploeg, J. D. & Renting, H. (2000). Impact and Potential: A comparative review of European rural development practices. Sociologia Ruralis, 40(4), 529-543. Doi: 10.1111/1467-9523.00165.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Van Huylenbroeck, G. et al. (2007). Multifunctionality of Agriculture: A Review of Definitions, Evidence and Instruments. Living Reviews in Landscape Research, Vol. 1. pp.5-43. http://www.livingreviews.org/lrlr-2007-3. http://www.livingreviews.org/lrlr-2007-3

  • Vidal, J. (2010). Soil loss threatens a hungry Earth. The Guardian Weekly, 17.12.2010, p 32.Google Scholar

  • Vos, W., Meekes, H. (1999). Trends in European cultural landscape development: Perspectives for a sustainable future. Landscape and Urban Planning, 46(1-3), 3-14. Doi: 10.1016/S0169-2046(99)00043-2.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Walford, N. (2002). Agricultural adjustment: adoption of and adaptation to policy reform measures by large-scale commercial farmers. Land Use Policy, 19(3), 243-257. Doi: 10.1016/S0264-8377(02)00018-2.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Walford, N. (2003). Productivism is allegedly dead, long live productivism. Evidence of continued productivist attitudes and decision making in South-East England. Journal of Rural Studies, 19(4), 491-502. Doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(03)00030-5.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Walther, P. (1986). Land abandonment in the Swiss Alps: a new understanding of a land use problem. Mountain Resource Development, 6, 305-314.Google Scholar

  • Webb, N. R. (1998). The Traditional Management of European Heathlands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35(6), 987-990. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.1998.tb00020.x.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Welch, D., (1998). Response of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. strands in the Derbyshire Peak District to sheep grazing, and implications for moorland conservation. Biological Conservation. 83(2), 155-164. Doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(97)00067-0.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Westoby, M., Walker, B. & Noy-Meir, I. (1989). Opportunistic management for rangelands not at equilibrium. Journal of Range Management, 42, 266-274.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • White, B. & Wadsworth, R. (1994). A bioeconomic model of heather moorland management and conservation. Ecological Economics, 9, 197-207.Google Scholar

  • Wilson, G., (2001). From productivism to post-productivism and back again? Exploring the (un)changed natural and mental landscapes of European Agriculture. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 26(1), 77-102. Doi: 10.1111/1475-5661.00007.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wilson, G. A. (2007). Multifunctional Agriculture: A Transition Theory Perspective. Wallingford: CAB International, 384pp.Google Scholar

  • Winter, M., Gaskell, P., & Short, C. (1998). Upland Landscapes in Britain and the 1992 CAP Reforms. Landscape Research, 23(3), 273-288. Doi: 10.1080/01426399808706545.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2012-04-26

Published in Print: 2012-01-01

Citation Information: European Countryside, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 116–133, ISSN (Online) 1803-8417, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10091-012-0018-3.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Kate E. Davidson, Mike S. Fowler, Martin W. Skov, Stefan H. Doerr, Nicola Beaumont, John N. Griffin, and Joseph Bennett
Journal of Applied Ecology, 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in