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Forum for Health Economics & Policy

Editor-in-Chief: Goldman, Dana

CiteScore 2017: 0.53

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.425
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.297

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Health Status, Health Care and Inequality: Canada vs. the U.S.

June E O'Neill / Dave M O'Neill
Published Online: 2008-04-03 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2202/1558-9544.1094

It is often alleged that Canada's publicly-funded, single payer health care system, delivers better health outcomes, and distributes health resources more fairly than the mainly private U.S. multi-payer system. Our findings contradict these allegations. Differences between the U.S. and Canada in infant mortality and life expectancy --the two indicators most commonly used as evidence of better health outcomes in Canada—cannot be attributed to differences in the effectiveness of the two health care systems because they are strongly influenced by differences in cultural and behavioral factors such as the relatively high U.S. incidence of obesity and of accidents and homicides. Moreover, direct measures of the effectiveness of medical care, show that five-year relative survival rates for individuals diagnosed with various types of cancer are higher in the U.S. than in Canada as are infant survival rates of low-birth weight babies. These successes are consistent with the greater U.S. availability of high level technology, higher rates of screening for cancers, and higher treatment rates of the chronically ill. The need to ration when care is delivered "free" ultimately leads to long waits. Waiting times for medical services are a major problem in Canada and a source of unmet needs. In the U.S. costs are more often cited as a source of unmet needs. Nonetheless, with respect to the issue of inequality, we find that the health-income gradient is at least as prominent in Canada as it is in the U.S. When asked about satisfaction with health services and the ranking of the quality of services recently received, more U.S. residents than Canadians respond that they are fully satisfied and rank quality of care as excellent. To address these issues we use the Joint Canada/ U.S. Survey of Health (JCUSH) along with other data sources.

Keywords: health status; health-income gradient; infant mortality differentials; life expectancy differentials; Canada-U.S. health differentials

About the article

Published Online: 2008-04-03

Citation Information: Forum for Health Economics & Policy, Volume 10, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 1558-9544, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2202/1558-9544.1094.

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