American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. When and in whom to initiate HCV therapy. Available at: http://hcvguidelines.org/full-report/when-and-whom-initiate-hcv-therapy. Accessed August 14, 2014.
Backus, L. I., S. Gavrilov, T. P. Loomis, J. P. Halloran, B. R. Phillips, P. S. Belperio and L. A. Mole (2009) “Clinical Case Registries: Simultaneous Local and National Disease Registries for Population Quality Management,” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 16(6):775–783.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Backus, L. I., D. B. Boothroyd, B. R. Phillips, P. Belperio, J. Halloran and L. A. Mole (2011) “A Sustained Virologic Response Reduces Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Hepatitis C,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 9:509–516.e1.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Bonnard, P., A. Elsharkawy, K. Zalata, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, L. Biard, L. Le Fouler, A. B. Hassan, M. Abdel-Hamid, M. El-Daly, M. E. Gamal, M. El Kassas, P. Bedossa, F. Carrat, A. Fontanet and G. Esmat (2015) “Comparison of Liver Biopsy and Noninvasive Techniques for Liver Fibrosis Assessment in Patients Infected with HCV-genotype 4 in Egypt,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 22:245–253.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
Butt, A. A., P. Yan, V. Lo Re, 3rd, D. Rimland, M. B. Goetz, D. Leaf, M. S. Freiberg, M. B. Klein, A. C. Justice and K. E. Sherman; ERCHIVES (Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans) Study Team (2015) “Liver Fibrosis Progression in Hepatitis C Virus Infection After Seroconversion,” Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 172(2):178–185.Google Scholar
Center for Quality Management in Public Health (2010) “The State of Care for Veterans with Chronic Hepatitis C.” US Department of Veteran Affairs, Public Health Strategic Health Care Group, Center for Quality Management in Public Health, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
Chen, J., J. Florian, W. Carter, R. D. Fleischer, T. S. Hammerstrom, P. R. Jadhav, W. Zeng, J. Murray and D. Birnkrant (2013) Earlier Sustained Virologic Response End Points for Regulatory Approval and dose Selection of Hepatitis C Therapies,” Gastroenterology, 144(7):1450–1455.e2.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Crosse, K., O. G. Umeadi, F. A. Anania, J. Laurin, J. Papadimitriou, C. Drachenberg and C. D. Howell (2004) “Racial Differences in Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis Related to Chronic Hepatitis C,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2(6):463–468.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Davis, G. L., J. E. Albright, S. F. Cook and D. M. Rosenberg (2003) “Projecting Future Complications of Chronic Hepatitis C in the United States,” Liver Transplantation, 9(4):331–338.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Denniston, M. M., R. B. Jiles, J. Drobeniuc, R. M. Klevens, J. W. Ward, G. M. McQuillan and S. D. Holmberg (2014) “Chronic Hepatitix C Virus Infection in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2010,” Annals of Internal Medicine, 160(5):293–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Ditah, I., F. Ditah, P. Devaki, O. Ewelukwa, C. Ditah, B. Njei, H. N. Luma and M. Charlton (2014) “The Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2010,” Journal of Hepatology, 60(4):691–698.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Fried, Michael W., M. L. Shiffman, K. R. Reddy, C. Smith, G. Marinos, F. L. Gonçales Jr, D. Häussinger, M. Diago, G. Carosi, D. Dhumeaux, A. Craxi, A. Lin, J. Hoffman and J. Yu (2002) “Peginterferon Alfa-2a Plus Ribavirin for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection,” New England Journal of Medicine, 347(13):975–982.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ghany, M. G., A. S. Lok, J. E. Everhart, G. T. Everson, W. M. Lee, T. M. Curto, E. C. Wright, A. M. Stoddard, R. K. Sterling, A. M. Di Bisceglie, H. L. Bonkovsky, C. Morishima, T. R. Morgan and J. L. Dienstag; HALT-C Trial Group (2010) “Predicting Clinical and Histologic Outcomes Based on Standard Laboratory Tests in Advanced Chronic Hepatitis C,” Gastroenterology, 138:136–146.Web of SciencePubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Holmberg, S. D., M. Lu, L. B. Rupp, L. E. Lamerato, A. C. Moorman, V. Vijayadeva, J. A. Boscarino, E. M. Henkle and S. C. Gordon; Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study (CHeCS) Investigators (2013) “Noninvasive Serum Fibrosis Markers for Screening and Staging Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Patients in a Large US Cohort,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, 57:240–246.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kallwitz, E. R., J. Layden-Almer, M. Dhamija, J. Berkes, G. Guzman, R. Lepe, S. J. Cotler and T. J. Layden (2010) “Ethnicity and Body Mass Index are Associated with Hepatitis C Presentation and Progression,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 8(1):72–78.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Kanwal, F., J. R. Kramer, J. Ilyas, Z. Duan and H. B. El-Serag (2014) “HCV Genotype 3 is Associated with an Increased Risk of Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Cancer in a National Sample of U.S. Veterans with HCV,” Hepatology, 60:98–105.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Klevens, R. M., D. J. Hu, R. Jiles and S. D. Holmberg (2012) “Evolving Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in the United States,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, 55(Suppl 1):S3–S9.Google Scholar
Kobayashi, M., E. Tanaka, T. Sodeyama, A. Urushihara, A. Matsumoto and K. Kiyosawa (1996) “The Natural Course of Chronic Hepatitis C: A Comparison Between Patients with Genotypes 1 and 2 Hepatitis C Viruses,” Hepatology, 23:695–699.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Larsen, C., V. Bousquet, E. Delarocque-Astagneau, C. Pioche, F. Roudot-Thoraval; HCV Surveillance Steering Committee; HCV Surveillance Group and J. C. Desenclos (2010) “Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 3 and the Risk of Severe Liver Disease in a Large Population of Drug Users in France,” Journal of Medical Virology, 82(10):1647–1654.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Lee, M. H., H. I. Yang, S. N. Lu, C. L. Jen, S. L. You, L. Y. Wang, C. H. Wang, W. J. Chen and C. J. Chen; R.E.V.E.A.L.-HCV Study Group (2012) “Chronic Hepatitic C Virus Infection Increases Mortality from Hepatic and Extrahepatic Diseases: A Community-Based Long-Term Prosepctive Study,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 206:469–477.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Loftus, P. (2013) “Patient Dilemma: Treat Hepatitic C Now or Hold Out?” Wall Street Journal. Available at: http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323293704578330712442353712. Accessed May 30, 2015.
McCombs, J., T. Matsuda, I. Tonnu-Mihara, S. Saab, P. Hines, G. L’italien, T. Juday and Y. Yuan (2014) “The Risk of Long-Term Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C: Results from an Analysis of Data from a Department of Veterans Affairs Clinical Registry,” Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 174:204–212.Google Scholar
Ng, V. and S. Saab (2011) “Effects of a Sustained Virologic Response on Outcomes of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 9(11):923–930.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Rein, D. B., J. S. Wittenborn, C. M. Weinbaum, M. Sabin, B. D. Smith and S. B. Lesesne (2011) “Forecasting the Morbidity and Mortality Associated with Prevalent Cases of Pre-Cirrhotic Chronic Hepatitis C in the United States,” Digestive and Liver Disease, 43(1):66–72.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Sanchez-Conde, M., M. L. Montes-Ramirez, P. Miralles, J. M. Alvarez, J. M. Bellón, M. Ramírez, J. R. Arribas, I. Gutiérrez, J. C. López, J. Cosín, E. Alvarez, J. González and J. Berenguer (2010) “Comparison of Transient Elastography and Liver Biopsy for the Assessment of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients and Correlation with Noninvasive Serum Markers,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 17:280–286.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
Sterling, R. K., R. T. Stravitz, V. A. Luketic, A. J. Sanyal, M. J. Contos, A. S. Mills and M. L. Shiffman (2004) “A Comparison of the Spectrum of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Between Caucasians and African Americans,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2(6):469–473.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sterling, R. K., E. Lissen, N. Clumeck, R. Sola, M. C. Correa, J. Montaner, M. S. Sulkowski, F. J. Torriani, D. T. Dieterich, D. L. Thomas, D. Messinger and M. Nelson; APRICOT Clinical Investigators (2006) “Development of a Simple Noninvasive Index to Predict Significant Fibrosis in Patients with HIV/HCV Coinfection,” Hepatology, 43:1317–1325.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Vallet-Pichard, A., V. Mallet, B. Nalpas, V. Verkarre, A. Nalpas, V. Dhalluin-Venier, H. Fontaine and S. Pol (2007) “FIB-4: An Inexpensive and Accurate Marker of Fibrosis in HCV Infection. Comparison with Liver Biopsy and Fibrotest,” Hepatology, 46(1):32–36.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
van der Meer, A. J., B. J. Veldt, J. J. Feld, H. Wedemeyer, J. F. Dufour, F. Lammert, A. Duarte-Rojo, E. Heathcote, M. P. Manns, L. Kuske, S. Zeuzem, W. P. Hofmann, R. J. de Knegt, B. E. Hansen and H. L. Janssen (2012) “Association Between Sustained Virological Response and All-Cause Mortality Among Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 308(24):2584–2593.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
van der Meer, A. J., B. E. Hansen, G. Fattovich, J. J. Feld, H. Wedemeyer, J. F. Dufour, F. Lammert, A. Duarte-Rojo, M. P. Manns, D. Ieluzzi, S. Zeuzem, W. P. Hofmann, R. J. de Knegt, B. J. Veldt and H. L. Janssen (2015) “Reliable Prediction of Clinical Outcome in Patients with Chronic HCV Infection and Compensated Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis: A Validated Model Using Objective and Readily Available Clinical Parameters,” Gut, 64(2):322–331.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Vergniol, J., J. Foucher, E. Terrebonne, P. H. Bernard, B. le Bail, W. Merrouche, P. Couzigou and V. de Ledinghen (2011) “Noninvasive Tests for Fibrosis and Liver Stiffness Predict 5-year Outcomes of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C,” Gastroenterology, 140:1970–1979.e3.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
Xu, F., J. Xing, A. C. Moorman, S. C. Gordon, L. B. Rupp, M. Lu, P. R. Spradling, E. H. Teshale, J. A. Boscarino, V. Vijayadeva, M. A. Schmidt (2014) FIB-4 Score and Gender Predict the Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) among Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection: Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study (CHeCS) 65th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Boston, MA.Google Scholar
Zhou, S., N. A. Terrault, L. Ferrell, J. A. Hahn, J. Y. Lau, P. Simmonds, J. P. Roberts, J. R. Lake, N. L. Ascher and T. L. Wright (1996) “Severity of Liver Disease in Liver Transplantation Recipients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Relationship to Genotype and Level of Viremia,” Hepatology, 24(5):1041–1046.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
About the article
Published Online: 2016-06-15
Published in Print: 2016-12-01
Conflict of interest: Financial support for the development of the database used in this research was provided by Bristol-Myers Squibb [BMS]. The University of Southern California maintained all rights to publication. The University sub-contracted with the Veterans Affairs Department for access to the data. Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Drs. McCombs and Fox received salary and travel support under the terms of the research grant between Abbvie Pharmaceuticals and USC designed to continue previous research. Tara Matsuda and Justin McGinnis were supported as a USC graduate research assistant under the terms of the grant. Dr. Ivy Tonnu-Mihara is employed by the VA. Employees of BMS and Abbvie were not involved with the analyses included in this research or in the drafting of this manuscript. BMS employees were involved as co-authors of earlier publications and manuscripts using the same database. The research did not involve specific drugs or drugs marketed by BMS.
Research funding: This research used a database developed under a previous study funded by BMS.
Author statement: Drs. McCombs and Fox received salary and travel support under the terms of the research grant between Abbvie Pharmaceuticals and USC designed to continue previous research. Tara Matsuda and Justin McGinnis were supported as a USC graduate research assistant under the terms of the grant. Dr. Ivy Tonnu-Mihara is employed by the VA.