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Development of soil water regime under spruce stands

Ladislav Tužinský
  • Corresponding author
  • Faculty of Forestry, Technical University in Zvolen, T.G. Masaryka 24, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovak Republic
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/ Eduard Bublinec
  • Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Education, Catholic University in Ružomberok, Hrabovská 1, 034 01 Ružomberok, Slovak Republic
  • Institute of Forest Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štúrova 2, Zvolen, Slovak Republic
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Marek Tužinský
  • Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
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Published Online: 2017-08-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/foecol-2017-0006


The aim of this paper is to analyse the water regime of soils under spruce ecosystems in relation to long-lasting humid and drought periods in the growing seasons 1991-2013. The dominant interval humidity in observing growing seasons is semiuvidic interval with soil moisture between hydro-limits maximal capillary capacity (MCC) and point of diminished availability (PDA). Gravitationally seepage concentrated from accumulated winter season, water from melting snow and existing atmospheric precipitation occurs in the soil only at the beginning of the growing season. The supplies of soil water are significantly decreasing in the warm climate and precipitant deficient days. The greatest danger from drought threatens Norway spruce during the summer months and it depends on the duration of dry days, water supply at the beginning of the dry days, air temperature and the intensity of evapotranspiration. In the surface layers of the soil, with the maximum occurrence of active roots, the water in semiarid interval area between hydro-limits PDA and wilting point (WP) decreases during the summer months. In the culminating phase occurs the drying to moisture state with capillary stationary and the insufficient supply of available water for the plants. Physiological weakening of Norway spruce caused by set of outlay components of the water balance is partially reduced by delivering of water by capillary action from deeper horizons. In extremely dry periods, soil moisture is decreasing also throughout the soil profile (0-100 cm) into the bottom third of the variation margin hydro-limits MCC-PDA in the category of capillary less moving and for plants of low supply of usable water (60-90 mm). The issue of deteriorated health state of spruce ecosystems is considered to be actual. Changes and developments of hydropedological conditions which interfere the mountain forests represent the increasing danger of the drought for the spruce.

Keywords: available water; forest ecosystem; hydrolimits; soil moisture; water balance


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About the article

Received: 2016-12-12

Accepted: 2017-03-16

Published Online: 2017-08-30

Published in Print: 2017-06-27

Citation Information: Folia Oecologica, Volume 44, Issue 1, Pages 46–53, ISSN (Online) 1338-7014, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/foecol-2017-0006.

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© 2017. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

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