About the article
Verlan Lewis is a PhD candidate in the Department of Politics at the University of Virginia.
James W. Ceaser
James W. Ceaser is Professor of Politics at the University of Virginia and a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. He is the author of, among others, Nature and History in American Political Development (Harvard University Press, 2006), and After Hope and Change: The 2012 Election and American Politics, with Andrew Busch and Jack Pitney (forthcoming from Rowman and Littlefield).
Published Online: 2013-02-09
“Transcript of President Bush’s News Conference,” New York Times, 4 Nov 2004.
E.J. Dionne, Jr., “…He Didn’t Get It,” The Washington Post, 5 Nov 2004.
Senator Bernie Sanders wrote: “President Obama and the Democrats won a decisive victory on Election Day. The people have spoken and the Democratic Leadership must make it very clear that they intend to…hold the line.” “The People Have Spoken,” Daily Kos, 29 Nov 2012.
Historians of American politics often point to 1896 as the beginning of modern presidential elections.
Woodrow Wilson, Constitutional Government in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press, 1908, p. 54.
Alexander Hamilton, Federalist 72, 1788.
Prior to the advent of mass popular voting in the 1830s, popular vote data is sketchy and not as comparable with later elections. Still, we know that all five re-elected Presidents in this era – Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, and Jackson – increased their number of electoral votes. It is likely that Madison and Jackson both lost popular vote-share even though both probably increased their number of popular votes. In Jackson’s case, a third-party candidate run by the Anti-Masonic Party split the vote in 1832, which means that Jackson probably increased his margin of victory despite losing vote-share.
Wilson lost the House in his 1916 re-election campaign, while all the others lost chambers in the prior mid-term election.
Interestingly, no vice president, after finishing his president’s term, has run for more than one election. Theodore Roosevelt, Coolidge, Truman, and LBJ all won an election in their own right as incumbents, but none went on to stand for a second election. LBJ was the closest to pursuing this option in 1968, but withdrew in the face of stiff resistance from his primary challengers.
One exception is the District of Columbia, which has voted in favor of the Democratic Party’s candidate in every election.