Atkeson, Lonna Rae. 1993. “Moving Toward Unity: Attitudes in the Nomination and General Election Stages of a Presidential Campaigns.” Am Pol Quart 21: 272–289.Google Scholar
Burden, Barry C., and D. Sunshine Hillygus. 2009. “Opinion Formation, Polarization, and Presidential Reelection.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 39: 619–635.Google Scholar
Campbell, James E. 2008. “An Exceptional Election: Performance, Values, and Crisis in the 2008 Presidential Election.” The Forum 6 (4): Article 7.Google Scholar
Charnock, Emily Jane, James A. McCann, and Kathryn Dunn Tenpas. 2009. “Presidential Travel from Eisenhower to George W. Bush: An ‘Electoral College’ Strategy.” Political Science Quarterly 124: 323–339.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Marty, David Karol, Hans Noel, and John Zaller. 2008a. The Party Decides:Presidential Nominations Before and After Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Comiskey, Michael, and Lawrence C. Marsh. 2012. “Presidents, Parties, and the Business Cycle, 1949–2009.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 42: 40–59.Google Scholar
Cook, Rhodes. 2011. “Presidents and Renomination: Absence of a Primary Foe One Key to Fall Success.” Rhodes Cook Letter, August 2011, p. 8.Google Scholar
Harper, J. 2012. “Drop Out: or Not. Inside the Beltway.” The Washington Times, March 16. Available at: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/mar/16/inside-the-beltway-drop-out-or-not/. Accessed November 8, 2012.
Helman, Scott, and Sasha Issenberg. 2008. “McCain Becomes Presumptive GOP Nominee.” Boston Globe, February 7, 2008. Available at: http://www.boston.com/news/politics/politicalintelligence/2008/02/mccain_becomes.html. Accessed December 7, 2012.
Key, V. O., Jr. 1958. Politics, Parties and Pressure Groups. 4th ed. New York: Crowell.Google Scholar
Lengle, James I. 1980. “Divisive Presidential Primaries and Party Electoral Prospects, 1932–1976.” American Politics Quarterly 8: 261–277.Google Scholar
Martinez, J. 2012. “Data Drove Obama’s Ground Game.” The Hill, November 9. Available at http://thehill.com/blogs/hilliconvalley/technology/266987-data-drove-obamas-ground-game. Accessed December 11, 2012.
Mayer, William G. 2004. “From the End of the Nomination Contest to the Start of the National Conventions: Preliminary Thoughts on a New Period in Presidential Campaign Politics.” The Forum 2 (2): Article 1.Google Scholar
Mayer, William G., and Andrew E. Busch. 2004. The Front-Loading Problem in Presidential Nominations. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Nagourney, Adam. 2008. “McCain Looks Confident; Tighter Democratic Race.” New York Times, February 4, 2008. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/04/us/politics/04campaign.html?pagewanted=all. Accessed December 7, 2012.
Norrander, Barbara. 2000. “The End Game in Post-Reform Presidential Nominations.” Journal of Politics 62: 999–1013.Google Scholar
Rosenstiel, Tom, and Mark Jurkowitz. 2012. “The Master Character Narratives in Campaign 2012.” Pew Research Center, Project for Excellence in Journalism, August 23, 2012. Available at: http://www.journalism.org/analysis_report/2012_campaign_character_narratives. Accessed December 10, 2012.
Sanchez, Humberto. 2012. “Latino Vote Sprang from Local Touch.” Roll Call, December 11. Available at: http://www.rollcall.com/news/latino_vote_sprang_from_local_touch-219863-1.html. Accessed December 11, 2012.
Shafer, Byron E., and Amber Wichowsky. 2008. “The Nomination and the Election: Clearing Away Underbrush.” The Forum 6 (4): Article 3.Google Scholar
Shear, Michael D., and Juliet Eilperin. 2008. “New Phase of GOP Race: A Marathon or a Sprint?" Washington Post, February 7, 2008. Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/02/06/AR2008020600763.html. Accessed December 7, 2012.
Southwell, Priscilla L. 1986. “The Politics of Disgruntlement: Nonvoting and Defection among Supporters of Nomination Losers, 1968–1984.” Political Behavior 8: 81–95.Google Scholar
Stoll, Richard J. 1984. “The Guns of November: Presidential Reelections and the Use of Force, 1947–1982.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 28: 231–246.Google Scholar
Stone, Walter J. 1984. “Prenomination Candidate Choice and General Election Behavior.” American Journal of Political Science 28: 372–389.Google Scholar
Stone, Walter J., Lonna Rae Atkeson, and Ronald B. Rapoport. 1992. “Turning On or Turning Off? Mobilization and Demobilization Effects of Participation in Presidential Nomination Campaigns.” American Journal of Political Science 36: 665–691.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
About the article
Barbara Norrander is a Professor in the School of Government and Public Policy at the University of Arizona. She has been writing about presidential nomination politics since the 1980s.
Jay Wendland is a PhD candidate in the School of Government and Public Policy. His dissertation explores the role of candidate visits in presidential nominating politics.
Published Online: 2013-02-09
“Mitt Romney Favorable Rating,” Pollster, http://elections.huffingtonpost.com/pollster/mitt-romney-favorability, and “Barack Obama Favorable Rating,” Pollster, http://elections.huffingtonpost.com/pollster/obama-favorable-rating, both accessed December 12, 2012.