Beyle, Thad. 2007. “Gubernatorial Power: The Institutional Power Ratings for the 50 Governors of the United States.” http://www.unc.edu/~beyle/gubnewpwr.html.
Boatright, Robert G., Michael J. Malbin, Mark Rozell, Richard Skinner, and Clyde Wilcox. 2003. “BCRA’s Impact on Interest Groups and Advocacy Organizations.” In Life after Reform: When the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act Meets Politics, edited by Michael J. Malbin, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Boatright, Robert G., Michael J. Malbin, Mark Rozell, and Clyde Wilcox. 2006. “Interest Groups and Advocacy Organizations after BCRA.” In The Election after Reform: Money, Politics, and the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, edited by Michael J. Malbin, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Clark-Muntean, Susan. 2008. “Corporate Contributions after the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act.” Election Law Journal 7 (3): 233–244.Google Scholar
Clark-Muntean, Susan. 2011. “Corporate Independent Spending in the Post-BCRA to Pre-Citizens United Era.” Business and Politics 13 (1): Article 1.Google Scholar
Cohen, Marty, David Karol, Hans Noel, and John Zaller. 2008. The Party Decides: Presidential Nominations Before and After Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Confessore, Nicholas. 2014. A National Strategy Funds State Political Monopolies. New York Times. January 11. Accessed January 25, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/12/us/politics/a-national-strategy-funds-state-political-monopolies.html.
Eismeier, Theodore J., and Philip H. Pollock III. 1988. Business Money and the Rise of Corporate PACs in American Elections. New York: Quorum Books.Google Scholar
Ferguson, Margaret. 2012. “Governors and the Executive Branch.” In Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis, edited by Virginia Gray, Russell L. Hanson, and Thad Kousser. 10th ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
Issacharoff, Samuel, and Jeremy Peterman. 2013. “Special Interests and Citizens United: Access, Replacement, and Interest Group Response to Legal Change.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 9: 185–205.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Masket, Seth. 2009. No Middle Ground: How Informal Party Organizations Control Nominations and Polarize Legislatures. Ann Arbor MI: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Michigan Campaign Finance Network. 2011. “The RGA’s $114M Shall Game.” March 15. Accessed August 15, 2012. http://www.mcfn.org/press.php?prId=130.
Moncrief, Gary F. 1992. “The Increase in Campaign Expenditures in State Legislative Elections: A Comparison of Four Northwestern States.” The Western Political Quarterly 45 (2): 549–558.Google Scholar
Moncrief, Gary F., and W. David Patton. 1993. “Upping the Campaign Ante as Parties Compete to Control the State Legislature.” State & Local Government Review 25 (1): 39–44.Google Scholar
Monroe, J. P. 2001. The Political Party Matrix: The Persistence of Organization. Ithaca: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). 2012. “2012 States and Legislative Partisan Composition.” Accessed August 23, 2012. http://www.ncsl.org/documents/statevote/2012_Legis_and_State.pdf.
Sorauf, Frank J. 1988. Money in American Elections. Scott, Foresman and Company.Google Scholar
Torres-Spelliscy, Ciara. 2012. “The $500 Million Question: Are the Democratic and Republican Governors Associations Really State PACs under Buckley’s Major Purpose Test?” NYU Journal of Legislation & Public Policy 15: 485 (Spring).Google Scholar
About the article
Keith E. Hamm
Keith E. Hamm is Edwards Professor of Government at Rice University.
Michael J. Malbin
Michael J. Malbin is co-founder and Executive Director of the Campaign Finance Institute and Professor of Political Science at the University at Albany, SUNY.
Jaclyn J. Kettler
Jaclyn J. Kettler is a PhD candidate at Rice University who is soon to be Assistant Professor of Political Science at Boise State University.
Brendan Glavin is Data and Systems Manager at the Campaign Finance Institute.
Published Online: 2014-08-08
Published in Print: 2014-07-01