Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Folia Veterinaria

4 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Electroretinography (A Review)

A. Balicka
  • Corresponding author
  • Small Animal Clinic University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice The Slovak Republic
  • Email:
/ A. Trbolová
  • Small Animal Clinic University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice The Slovak Republic
/ T. Vrbovská
  • Small Animal Clinic University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice The Slovak Republic
Published Online: 2016-04-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/fv-2016-0008


Electroretinography (ERG) is a functional test of the outer retina. During an examination, the retina is selectively stimulated. The stimulation of the retina produces a response of the individual retinal cells and reveals information about its function. The ERG examination requires very specific conditions in order to avoid undesirable factors which may adversely affect the recordings. The electroretinography examination may be performed for a short period (“rapid protocol”), commonly used to access retinal activity. The “long protocol” is used for the differential diagnosis of retinal disorders. It is mainly used in diagnosing and evaluating retinal dysfunction when there are no ophthalmic lesions present. The main indications for electroretinography are the pre-operative examination of cataract patient and the early diagnosis of inherited retinal diseases. In veterinary ophthalmology, ERG is performed under general anesthesia. The ERG results have wave forms with characteristic components depending upon several factors. Its interpretation requires knowledge of retinal pathology and electrophysiology

Keywords: electroretinography (ERG); ophthalmology; retina; retinopathy


  • 1. Aguirre, G. D., Acland, G. M., 1997: Use and misuse of electroretinography in the diagnosis of inherited retinal diseases of dogs. Proceedings American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, 27, 37.Google Scholar

  • 2. Carvalho Kreuz, A., Kiyoko Oyamada , M., Hatanaka, M., Ribeiro Monteiro, M. L., 2014: The role of pattern-reversal electroretinography in the diagnosis of glaucoma Arq. Bras. Oftalmol., 77, 403-10.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 3. Dewar, J., McKendrick, J. G., 1873: On the physiological action of light. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 8, 179-182.Google Scholar

  • 4. Du Bois-Reymond, E., 1849: Studies on the Animal Electricity. 2nd vol., 1st edn., Reumer, Berlin, 608 pp.Google Scholar

  • 5. Ekesten, B., 2013: Electrodiagnostic evaluation of vision. In Gelatt, K. N., Gilger, B. C., Kern, T. J.: Veterinary Ophthalmology. 5th edn., Wiley-Blackwell, New Jersey, 684-702.Google Scholar

  • 6. Ekesten, B., Komaromy, A. M., Ofri, R., Petersen-Jones, S. M., Narfstrom, K., 2013: Guidelines for clinical electroretinography in the dog: 2012 update, Doc. Ophthalmol., 127, 79-87.Google Scholar

  • 7. Frishman, L. J., 2006: Origins of the electroretinogram. In Heckenlively, J. R, Arden, G. B.: Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision, 2nd edn., The MIT Press, Massachusetts. 139-184.Google Scholar

  • 8. Gelatt, K. N., Wilkie, D. A., 2011: Surgical procedures of the lens and cataracts. In Gelatt, K. N., Gelatt, J. P.: Veterinary Ophthalmic Surgery. Saunders Ltd, Philadelphia, 314-343.Google Scholar

  • 9. Holmgren, F., 1870: The retina currents. Ups. Lakareforenings Forh., 6, 419-455.Google Scholar

  • 10. Hyman, J. A., Vaegan Lei, B., Narfström, K. L., 2005: Electrophysiologic differentiation of homozygous and heterozygous Abyssinian-crossbred cats with late-onset hereditary retinal degeneration, Am. J. Vet. Res., 66, 1914-21.Google Scholar

  • 11. Jeong, M. B., Narfstrom, K., Park, S. A., Chae, J. M., Seo, K. M., 2009: Comparison of the effects of three different combinations of general anesthetics on the electroretinogram of dogs. Doc Ophthalmol., 119, 79-88.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 12. Kofuji, P., Ceelen, P., Zahs, K. R., Surbeck, L. W., Lester, H. A., Newman, E. A., 2000: Genetic inactivation of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir4.1 subunit) in mice: phenotypic impact in retina, J. Neurosci., 20, 5733-5740.Google Scholar

  • 13. Kommonen, B., 1988: The DC-recorded dog electroretinogram in ketamine-medetomidine anaesthesia, Acta Vet. Scand., 29, 35-41.Google Scholar

  • 14. Kondo, M., Piao, C. H., Tanikawa, A., Horiguchi, M., Terasaki, H., Miyake, Y., 2000: Amplitude decrease of photopic ERG b-wave at higher stimulus intensities in humans. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol., 44, 20-28.Google Scholar

  • 15. Martin, C. L., 2005: Ophthalmic Disease in Veterinary Medicine. Manson Publishing, London, 401-470.Google Scholar

  • 16. McLellan, G. J., Narfstrom, K., 2015: The fundus. In Gould, D., McLellan, G. J.: BSAVA Mannual of Canine and Feline Ophthalmology, 3rd edn., BSAVA, Gloucester, 322-356.Google Scholar

  • 17. Mentzer, A. E., Eifler, D. M., Montiani-Ferreira, F., Tuntivanich, N., Forcier, J. Q., Petersen-Jones, S., 2005: Influence of recording electrode type and reference electrode position on the canine electroretinogram, Doc. Ophthalmol., 111, 95-106.Google Scholar

  • 18. Montgomery, K. W., van der Woerdt, A., Cottrill, N. B., 2008: Acute blindness in dogs: sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome versus neurological disease (140 cases, 2000-2006), Vet. Ophthalmol., 11, 314-320.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 19. Mowat, F. M., Breuwer, A. R., Bartoe, J. T., Annear, M. J., Zhang. Z., Smith. A. J., Bainbridge et. al., 2013: RPE65 gene therapy slows cone loss in Rpe65-deficient dogs, Gene Ther., 20, 545-55.Google Scholar

  • 20. Narfström, K., Petersen-Jones, S. M., 2013: Diseases of the canine ocular fundus. In Gelatt, K. N., Gilger, B. C., Kern, T. J.: Veterinary Ophthalmology. 5th edn., Wiley-Blackwell, New Jersey, 1303-1392.Google Scholar

  • 21. Ofri, R., 2002: Clinical electrophysiology in veterinary ophthalmology - the past, present and future, Doc. Ophthalmol., 104, 5-16.Google Scholar

  • 22. Ofri, R., 2008: Retina. In Maggs, D., Mille, P., Ofri, R.: Slatter’s Fundamentals of Veterinary Ophthalmology, 4th edn., Saunders, Philadelphia, 285-318.Google Scholar

  • 23. Ofri, R., 2009: The ECVO protocol for canine ERG recordings.Google Scholar

  • Proceedings of the XVIIth Congres of Small Animals Veterinary Medicine, Lublin., 17.Google Scholar

  • 24. Ofri, R., 2015: Do dogs really see in black and white? Facts and myths about our patient’s vision. In Proceedings of the Xth Southern European Veterinary Conference, Barcelona, 69.Google Scholar

  • 25. Parry, H. B., Tansley, K., Thomson, L. C., 1953: The electroretinogram of the dog. J. Physiol., 120, 28-40.Google Scholar

  • 26. Parry, H. B., Tansley, K., Thomson, L. C., 1955: Electroretinogram during development of hereditary retinal degeneration in the dog. Br. J. Ophthalmol., 39, 349-352.Google Scholar

  • 27. Petersen-Jones, S., Tuntivanich, N., Montiani-Fererreira, F., Khan, N. W. 2006: Electroretinogram of dog and chicken. In Heckenlively, J. R., Arden, G. B.: Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision, 2nd edn., The MIT Press, Massachusetts. 911-922.Google Scholar

  • 28. Ropstad, E. O., Narfstrom, K., 2007: The obvious and the more hidden components of the electroretinogram, EJCAP, 17, 290-296.Google Scholar

  • 29. Rubin, L. F., 1963: Atrophy of rods and cones in the cat retina. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 142, 1415-1420.Google Scholar

  • 30. Spiess, B. M., 1994: Electroretinagraphy. In Spiess, B. M.: Elektrophysiologische Untersuchungen des Auges bei Hund und Katze: Elektroretinographie (ERG), Visuell Evozierte Potentiale (VEP), Elektro-Okulographie (EOG). Enke, Stuttgart, 59-75.Google Scholar

  • 31. Terakado, K., Yogo, T., Nezu, Y., Harada, Y., Haray Tagawa, M., 2013: Efficacy of the use of a colorimetric pupil light reflex device in the diagnosis of fundus disease or optic pathway disease in dogs, Vet. Med. Sci., 75, 1491-1495.Google Scholar

  • 32. Wachtmeister, L., 1998: Oscillatory potentials in the retina: what do they reveal? Prog. Retin. Eye Res., 17, 485-521.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 33. Xu, X., Karwoski C. J., 1995: Current source density analysis of the electroretinographic d-wave of frog retina. J. Neurophysiol., 73, 2459-2469. Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-01-13

Published Online: 2016-04-20

Published in Print: 2016-03-01

Citation Information: Folia Veterinaria, ISSN (Online) 2453-7837, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/fv-2016-0008.

Export Citation

© 2016. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in