Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Geosciences

formerly Central European Journal of Geosciences

Editor-in-Chief: Jankowski, Piotr

1 Issue per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016 (Open Geosciences): 0.475

CiteScore 2016: 0.87

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.346
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.690

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2391-5447
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Andesites as Magmatic Liquids or Liquid-crystal Mixtures; Insights from Egmont and Ruapehu Volcanoes, New Zealand Research Article

Robert Stewart
Published Online: 2010-09-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10085-010-0022-7

Abstract

Late Quaternary andesitic magmas in New Zealand contain complexly zoned antecrysts and glomerocrysts that are not in equilibrium with either the host whole rock compositions or siliceous groundmass glass and glass inclusions. Glass inclusions represent partial melts of mafic to gabbroic cumulates in the lower crust that mix with restite crystals, or cumulates from earlier magma batches. Assimilation of partial melts of mid-crustal rocks, represented by glass in crustal xenoliths, contributes a crustal component to the andesites. Magmas at Egmont are stored at about the brittle/ductile transition at about 10 km depth and variability in the composition of erupted material is a function of the composition of the recharging magma, and which parts of the storage system are tapped during the eruption. At Taranaki recharge occurs on a c. 1400 year cycle while interactions within the storage give rise to shorter period events. A similar process on a less well constrained timescale operates at Ruapehu. Andesites are therefore complex mixtures of fractionated mantle basalts, siliceous partial melts of both the lower crust and underplated cumulates, restite and cumulate crystals. Further modification occurs by interaction with partial melts of lower to middle crustal basement as geotherms increase with time.

Keywords: subduction; partial melting; assimilation; xenolith; arc

  • [1] Gill J.B., Orogenic Andesites and Plate Tectonics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1981 Google Scholar

  • [2] Winter J.D., Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, 2nd ed., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010 Google Scholar

  • [3] Garrido C.J., Bodinier J.L., Burg J.P., Zeilinger G., Hussain S.S., Dawood H., Chaudhry M.N., Gervilla F., Petrogenesis of mafic garnet granulite in the lower crust of the Kohistan paleo-arc complex (Northern Pakistan): Implications for intra-crustal differentiation of island arcs and generation of continental crust, J. Petrol., 2006, 47, 1873–1914 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egl030CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4] Turner M.B., Cronin S.J., Smith I.E., Stewart R.B., Neall V.E., Eruption episodes and magma recharge events in andesitic systems: Mt Taranaki, New Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geoth.Res., 2008, 177, 1063–1076 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.08.001CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5] Reubi O., Blundy J., A dearth of intermediate melts at subduction zone volcanoes and the petrogenesis of arc andesites, Nature, 2009, 461, 1269-U103 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08510CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Gamble J.A., Price R.C., Smith I.E.M., McIntosh W.C., Dunbar N.W., Ar-40/Ar-39 geochronology of magmatic activity, magma flux and hazards at Ruapehu volcano, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geoth.Res., 2003, 120, 271–287 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0273(02)00407-9Google Scholar

  • [7] Wallace L.M., Beavan J., McCaffrey R., Darby D., Subduction zone coupling and tectonic block rotations in the North Island, New Zealand, J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 2004, 109(B12) Google Scholar

  • [8] Hochstein M.P., Crustal heat-transfer in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (New Zealand) — comparison with other volcanic arcs and explanatory heat source models, J. Volcanol. Geoth.Res., 1995, 68, 117–151 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(95)00010-RCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [9] Froggatt P.C., Lowe D.J., A Review of Late Quaternary silicic and some other tephra formations from New Zealand — their stratigraphy, nomenclature, distribution, volume, and age, N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys., 1990, 33, 89–109 Google Scholar

  • [10] Wilson C.J.N., Houghton B.F., McWilliams M.O., Lanphere M.A., Weaver S.D., Briggs R.M., Volcanic and structural evolution of Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand — a review, J. Volcanol. Geoth.Res., 1995, 68, 1–28 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(95)00006-GCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11] Gamble J.A., Wright I.C., Baker J.A., Sea-Floor geology and petrology in the oceanic to continental transition zone of the Kermadec — Havre — Taupo Volcanic Zone arc system, New Zealand, N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys., 1993, 36, 417–435 Google Scholar

  • [12] Smith I.E.M., Price R.C., Tonga-Kermadec arc and Havre-Lau back-arc system: Their role in the development of tectonic and magmatic models for the western Pacific, J. Volcanol. Geoth.Res., 2006, 156, 315–331 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.03.006CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13] Reyners M., Eberhart-Phillips, D., Stuart, G., Nishimura, Y., Imaging subduction from the trench to 300 km depth beneath the central North Island, New Zealand, with Vp and Vp/Vs, Geophys. J. Int., 2006, 165, 565–583 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.02897.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14] Stratford W.R., Stern T.A., Crust and upper mantle structure of a continental backarc: central North Island, New Zealand, Geophys. J. Int., 2006, 166(1), 469–484 Google Scholar

  • [15] Neall V.E., Sheets P19, P20 and P21 — New Ply-mouth, Egmont and Manaia. Geological Map of New Zealand 1:50 000, 1979, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington, New Zealand Google Scholar

  • [16] Neall V.E., Stewart R.B., Smith I.E.M., History and petrology of the Taranaki Volcanoes. In: Smith I.E.M., (Ed), Bulletin 33 — Late Tertiary Volcanism in New Zealand, 1986, The Royal Society of New Zealand, Robert B. Stewart 251-263 Google Scholar

  • [17] Stewart R.B., Price R.C., Smith I.E.M., Evolution of high-K arc magma, Egmont volcano, Taranaki, New Zealand: Evidence from mineral chemistry, J. Volcanol. Geoth.Res., 1996, 74, 275–295 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0273(96)00049-2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18] Price R.C., Stewart R.B., Woodhead J.D., Smith I.E.M., Petrogenesis of high-K arc magmas: Evidence from Egmont Volcano, North Island, New Zealand. J. Petrol., 1999, 40, 167–197 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/petrology/40.1.167CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [19] Price R.C., McCulloch M.T., Smith I.E.M., Stewart R.B., Pb-Nd-Sr isotopic compositions and trace element characteristics of young volcanic rocks from Egmont volcano and comparisons with basalts and andesites from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1992, 56, 941–953 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(92)90038-KCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [20] Gruender K., Stewart R.B., Foley S., Xenoliths from the sub-volcanic lithosphere of Mt Taranaki, New Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 2010, 190, 192–202 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.09.014CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21] Mortimer N., Tulloch A.J., Ireland T.R., Basement geology of Taranaki and Wanganui Basins, New Zealand, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geophys., 1997, 40, 223–236 Google Scholar

  • [22] Adams R.D., Ware D.E., Subcrustal Earthquakes Beneath New Zealand — Locations Determined With A Laterally Inhomogeneous Velocity Model, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geophys., 1977, 20, 59–83 Google Scholar

  • [23] Boddington T., Parkin C.J., Gubbins D., Isolated deep earthquakes beneath the North Island of New Zealand, Geophys. J. Int., 2004, 158, 972–982 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02340.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24] Stern T.A., Davey F.J., A seismic investigation of the crustal and upper mantle structure within the central volcanic region of New Zealand, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geophys., 1987, 30, 217–231 Google Scholar

  • [25] Stern T.A., Stratford W.R., Salmon M.L., Subduction evolution and mantle dynamics at a continental margin: Central North Island, New Zealand, Rev. Geophys., 2006, 44 Google Scholar

  • [26] Sherburn S., White R.S., Crustal seismicity in Taranaki, New Zealand using accurate hypocentres from a dense network, Geophys. J. Int., 2005, 162, 494–506 Google Scholar

  • [27] Sherburn S., White R.S., Tectonics of the Taranaki region, New Zealand: earthquake focal mechanisms and stress axes, N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys., 2006, 49, 269–279 Google Scholar

  • [28] Topping W.W., Some aspects of Quaternary history of Tongariro Volcanic Centre., 1974, Victoria University of Wellington: Wellington Google Scholar

  • [29] Donoghue S.L., Stewart R.B., Palmer A.S., Morphology and chemistry of olivine phenocrysts of Mangamate Tephra, Tongariro Volcanic Center, New Zealand, J. Roy. Soc. N. Z., 1991, 21, 225–236 Google Scholar

  • [30] Hobden B.J., Houghton B.F., Davidson J.P., Weaver S.D., Small and short-lived magma batches at composite volcanoes: time windows at Tongariro volcano, New Zealand, J. Geol. Soc., 1999, 156, 865–868 http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.156.5.0865CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [31] Hobden B.J., Houghton B.F., Lanphere M.A., Nairn I.A., Growth of the Tongariro volcanic complex: New evidence from K-Ar age determinations, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geophys., 1996, 39, 151–154 Google Scholar

  • [32] Cole J.W., Graham I.J., Hackett W.R., Houghton B.F, Volcanology and Petrology of Quaternary Composite Volcanoes of Tongariro Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone. In: Smith I.E.M., (Ed), Bulletin 33 — Late Tertiary Volcanism in New Zealand, 1986, The Royal Society of New Zealand, 224-250 Google Scholar

  • [33] Graham I.J., Petrography And Origin Of Meta-Sedimentary Xenoliths In Lavas From Tongariro-Volcanic Centre, N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys., 1987, 30, 139–157 Google Scholar

  • [34] Graham I.J., Blattner P., McCulloch M.T., Meta-Igneous Granulite Xenoliths From Mount Ruapehu, New-Zealand — Fragments Of Altered Oceanic-Crust, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 1990, 105, 650–661 Google Scholar

  • [35] Cole J.W., Andesites of Tongariro Volcanic Center, North Island, New Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geoth.Res., 1978, 3, 121–153 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(78)90007-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [36] Bibby H.M., Risk G.F., Caldwell T.G., Long offset tensor apparent resistivity surveys of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, J. Appl. Geophys., 2002, 49, 17–32 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0926-9851(01)00096-9CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [37] Cronin S.J., Hedley M.J., Smith R.G., Neall V.E., Impact of Ruapehu ash fall on soil and pasture nutrient status. 1. October 1995 eruptions, New Zeal. J. Ag. Res., 1997, 40, 383–395 Google Scholar

  • [38] Cronin S.J., Hodgson K.A., Neall V.E., Palmer A.S., Lecointre J.A., 1995 Ruapehu lahars in relation to the late Holocene lahars of Whangaehu River, New Zealand, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geophys., 1997, 40, 507–520 Google Scholar

  • [39] Donoghue S.L., Neall V.E., Palmer A.S., Stewart R.B., The volcanic history of Ruapehu during the past 2 millennia based on the record of Tufa Trig tephras, Bull. Volc., 1997, 59, 136–146 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004450050181CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [40] Waight T.E., Price R.C., Stewart R.B., Smith I.E.M., Gamble J., Stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Turoa area, with implications for andesite petrogenesis at Mt Ruapehu, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geophys., 1999, 42, 513–532 Google Scholar

  • [41] Donoghue S.L., Palmer A.S., McClelland E., Hobson K., Stewart R.B., Neall V.E., Lecointre J., Price R., The Taurewa Eruptive Episode: evidence for climactic Andésites as Magmatic Liquids or Liquid-crystal Mixtures; Insights from Egmont and Ruapehu Volcanoes, New Zealand eruptions at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, Bull. Vole, 1999, 61, 223–240 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004450050273CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [42] Sisson T.W., Grove T.L., Temperatures and H2O contents of low-MgO high-alumina basalts, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 1993, 113, 167–184 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00283226CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [43] Graham I.J., Hackett W.R., Petrology of calc-alkaline lavas from Ruapehu volcano and related vents, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, J. Petrol., 1987, 28, 531–567 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [44] Graham I.J., Cole J.W., Briggs R.M., Gamble J.A., Smith I.E.M., Petrology and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks from the Taupo Volcanic Zone — a review, J. Volcanol. Geoth.Res., 1995, 68, 59–87 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(95)00008-ICrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [45] Price R.C., Gamble J.A., Smith I.E.M., Stewart R.B., Eggins S., Wright I.C., An integrated model for the temporal evolution of andesites and rhyolites and crustal development in New Zealand’s North Island, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 2005, 140, 1–24 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2004.07.013CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [46] Gamble J.A., Smith I.E.M., Graham I.J., Kokelaar B.P., Cole J.W., Houghton B.F., Wilson C.J.N., The petrol-ogy, phase-relations and tectonic setting of basalts from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand and the Kermadec island-arc — Havre Trough, SW Pacific, J. Volcanol. Geoth.Res., 1990, 43, 253–270 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(90)90055-KCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [47] Graham I.J., Grapes R.H., Kifle K., Buchitic Metagreywacke Xenoliths From Mount Ngauruhoe, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New-Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geoth.Res., 1988, 35, 205–216 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(88)90017-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [48] Bignold S.A., Treloar P.J., Petford N., Changing sources of magma generation beneath intra-oceanic island arcs: An insight from the juvenile Kohistan island arc, Pakistan Himalaya, Chem. Geol., 2006, 233, 46–74 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2006.02.008CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [49] Dhuime B., Bosch D., Bodinier J.L., Garrido C.J., Bruguier O., Hussain S.S., Dawood H., Multistage evolution of the Jijal ultramafic-mafic complex (Kohistan, N Pakistan): Implications for building the roots of island arcs, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2007, 261, 179–200 Google Scholar

  • [50] Dhuime B., Bosch D., Garrido C.J., Bodinier J.L., Bruguier O., Hussain S.S., Dawood H., Geochemical Architecture of the Lower- to Middle-crustal Section of a Paleo-island Arc (Kohistan Complex, Jijal-Kamila Area, Northern Pakistan): Implications for the Evolu-tion of an Oceanic Subduction Zone, J. Petrol., 2009, 50, 531–569 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egp010CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [51] Garrido C.J., Bodinier, J.L., Dhuime, B., Bosch, D., Chanefo, I., Bruguier, O., Hussain, S.S., Dawood H., Burg J.P., Origin of the island arc Moho transition zone via melt-rock reaction and its implications for intracrustal differentiation of island arcs: Evidence from the Jijal complex (Kohistan complex, northern Pakistan), Geology, 2007, 35, 683–686 http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G23675A.1CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [52] DeBari S.M., Evolution of magmas in continental and oceanic arcs: The role of the lower crust, Can. Mineral., 1997, 35, 501–519 Google Scholar

  • [53] Greene A.R., DeBari S.M., Kelemen P.B., Blusztajn J., Clift P.D., A detailed geochemical study of island are crust: the Talkeetna Arc section, south-central Alaska J. Petrol., 2006, 47, 1051–1093 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egl002CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [54] Donoghue S.L., Gamble J.A., Palmer A.S., Stewart R.B., Magma mingling in an andesite pyroclastic flow of the Pourahu Member, Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 1995, 68, 177–191 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(95)00012-JCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [55] Platz T., Cronin S.J., Cashman K.V., Stewart R.B., Smith I.E.M., Transition from effusive to explosive phases in andesite eruptions — A case-study from the AD1655 eruption of Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res., 2007, 161, 15–34 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.11.005CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [56] Price R.C., Smith I.E.M., Gamble J.A., Andesites as mixtures of crystals and evolved melts derived from multi-component crustal and mantle sources: Evidence from Ruapehu, New Zealand, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2008, 72, A761-A761. Google Scholar

  • [57] Annen C., Blundy J.D., Sparks R.S.J., The Genesis of Intermediate and Silicic Magmas in Deep Crustal Hot Zones, J. Petrol., 2006, 47, 505–539 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egi084CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [58] Gamble J.A., Wood C.P., Price R.C., Smith I.E.M., Stewart R.B., Waight T., A fifty year perspective of magmatic evolution on Ruapehu Volcano, New Zealand: verification of open system behaviour in an arc volcano, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1999, 170, 301–314 Google Scholar

  • [59] Nakagawa M., Wada K., Thordarson T., Wood C.P., Gamble J.A., Petrologic investigations of the 1995 and 1996 eruptions of Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand: formation of discrete and small magma pockets and their intermittent discharge, Bull. Volc., 1999, 61, 15–31 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004450050259CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [60] Nakagawa M., Wada K., Wood C.P., Mixed magmas, mush chambers and eruption triggers: Evidence from zoned clinopyroxene phenocrysts in andesitic scoria from the 1995 eruptions of Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, J. Petrol., 2002, 43, 2279–2303 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/petrology/43.12.2279CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [61] Shane P., Doyle L.R., Nairn I.A., Heterogeneous andesite-dacite ejecta in 26-16.6 ka pyroclastic deposits of Tongariro Volcano, New Zealand: the product of multiple magma-mixing events, Bull. Volc., 2008, 70, 517–536 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-007-0152-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2010-09-01

Published in Print: 2010-09-01


Citation Information: Open Geosciences, ISSN (Online) 2391-5447, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10085-010-0022-7.

Export Citation

© 2010 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
A Auer, JDL White, M Nakagawa, and MD Rosenberg
New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 2013, Volume 56, Number 3, Page 121

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in