Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Geosciences

formerly Central European Journal of Geosciences

Editor-in-Chief: Jankowski, Piotr


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.788
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.899

CiteScore 2018: 1.02

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.295
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.612

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2391-5447
See all formats and pricing
More options …

The most problematic variable in the course of human-biometeorological comfort assessment — the mean radiant temperature

Noémi Kántor / János Unger
Published Online: 2011-03-27 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13533-011-0010-x

Abstract

This paper gives a review on the topic of the mean radiant temperature Tmrt, the most important parameter influencing outdoor thermal comfort during sunny conditions. Tmrt summarizes all short wave and long wave radiation fluxes reaching the human body, which can be very complex (variable in spatial and also in temporal manner) in urban settings. Thermal comfort researchers and urban planners need easy and sound methodological approaches to assess Tmrt. After the basics of the Tmrt calculation some of the methods suitable for obtaining Tmrt also in urban environments will be presented.. Two of the discussed methods are based on instruments which measure the radiation fluxes integral (globe thermometer, pyranometer-pyrgeometer combination), and three of the methods are based on modelling the radiation environment with PC software (RayMan, ENVI-met and SOLWEIG).

Keywords: mean radiant temperature; definition; calculation; measurement; modelling

  • [1] Fanger P.O., Thermal Comfort. McGraw Hill placeCityBook, StateNew York, country-regionUSA, 1972 Google Scholar

  • [2] Mayer H., Höppe P., Thermal comfort of man in different urban environments. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 1987, 38, 43–49 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00866252CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] Höppe P., Heat balance modelling. Experientia, 1993, 49, 741–746 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01923542CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4] Jendritzky G., The atmospheric environment — an introduction. Experientia, 1993, 49, 733–738 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01923541CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5] Mayer H., Urban bioclimatology. Experientia, 1993, 49, 957–963 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02125642CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6] VDI, Methods for the human-biometeorological assessment of climate and air hygiene for urban and regional planning. Part I: Climate. VDI 3787, Part 2. Beuth, Berlin, 1998 Google Scholar

  • [7] Höppe P., Ein neues Verfahren zur Bestimmung der mittleren Strahlungstemperatur in Freien. [A new measurement procedure to obtain the mean radiant temperature outdoors]. Wetter und Leben, 1992, 44, 147–151 (in German) Google Scholar

  • [8] official Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) website: www.utci.org Google Scholar

  • [9] Jendritzky G., Sönning W., Swantes H.J., Ein objektives Bewertungsverfahren zur Beschreibung des thermischen Milieus in der Stadt- und Landschaftsplanung (Klima-Michel-Modell) [An objective assessment procedure to specify the thermal environment in urban and landscape planning]. Beltrage der Akademie für Raumforschung und Landesplanung, 1979, 28, 85p (in German) Google Scholar

  • [10] Jendritzky G., Nübler W., A model analysing the urban thermal environment in physiologically significant terms. Arch. Met. Geoph. Biokl., 1981, Ser. B, 29, 313–326 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02263308CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11] Ali-Toudert F., Dependence of the outdoor thermal comfort on street design in hot and dry climate. Berichte des Meteorologischen Institutes der Universität Freiburg, 2005, 15, 1–229 Google Scholar

  • [12] Underwood C.R., Ward E.J., The solar radiation area of man. Ergonomics, 1966, 9, 155–168 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140136608964361CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13] VDI, Environmental meteorology, interactions between atmosphere and surface; Calculation of short-and long wave radiation. Part I: Climate. VDI 3789, Part 2. Beuth, Berlin, 1994 Google Scholar

  • [14] Vernon H.M., The measurement of radiant temperature in relation to human comfort. Journal of Industrial Hygiene, 1932, 14, 95–111 Google Scholar

  • [15] Bedford T., Warner C.G., The globe thermometer in studies of heating and ventilation. Journal of Instrument Hygiene, 1934, 34, 428–432 Google Scholar

  • [16] Clarke J.F., Bach B., Comparison of the comfort conditions in different urban and suburban microenvironments. Int. J. Biometeorol., 1971, 15, 41–54 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01804717CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17] Nikolopoulou M., Baker N., Steemers K., Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: Understanding the human parameter. Sol. Energy 2001, 70, 227–235 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0038-092X(00)00093-1CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18] Thorsson S., Lindberg F., placeSnEliasson SnI., Holmer B., Measurements of mean radiant temperature in different urban structures. In: Lindqvist S., Grimmond C.B.S. (Eds), Proceedings of the 6th Int. Conf. on Urban Climate, Göteborg University, Sweden, 2006, 867–870 Google Scholar

  • [19] Thorsson S., Lindberg F., Holmer B., Different methods for estimating the mean radiant temperature in an outdoor urban setting. Int. J. Climatol., 2007, 27, 1983–1993 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.1537CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [20] Matzarakis A., Rutz F., Mayer H., Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments — application of the RayMan model. Int. J. Biometeorol., 2007, 51, 323–334 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-006-0061-8CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [21] Matzarakis A., Rutz F., Mayer H., Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments: basics of the RayMan model. Int. J. Biometeorol., 2010, 54, 131–139 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-009-0261-0Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [22] Gagge A.P., Fobelets A.P., Berglund L.G., A standard predictive index of human response to the thermal environment. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Transactions, 1986, 92, 709–731 Google Scholar

  • [23] Höppe P., The physiological equivalent temperature — an universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. Int. J. Biometeorol., 1999, 43, 71–75 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004840050118CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24] Bruse M., Anwendung von mikroskaligen Simulationsmodellen in der Stadtplanung. In: Bernhard L., Küger T. (Eds.), Simulation raumbezogener Prozesse: Methoden und Anwendung [Application of microscale simulation models in urban planning]. Münster, 2000 (in German) Google Scholar

  • [25] Bruse M., Stadtgrün und Stadtklima — Wie sich Grünflächen auf das Mikroklima in Städten auswirken [Urban green and urban climate ‪ impacts of the green spaces on the urban microclimate]. LÖBF-Mitteilungen, 2003, 1, 66–70 (in German) Google Scholar

  • [26] official ENVI-met website: www.envi-met.com Google Scholar

  • [27] Lindberg F., Holmer B., Thorsson S., SOLWEIG 1.0 — Modelling spatial variations of 3D radiant fluxes and mean radiant temperature in complex urban settings. Int. J. Biometeorol., 2008, 52, 697–713 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-008-0162-7CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [28] Lindberg F., Grimmond C.S.B., The influence of vegetation and building morphology on shadow patterns and mean radiant temperatures in urban areas: model development and evaluation. Theor. Appl. Climatol., DOI 10.1007/s00704-010-0382-8 CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [29] Mayer H., Holst J., Dostal P., Imbery F., Schindler D., Human thermal comfort in summer within an urban street canyon in Central Europe. Meteorol. Z., 2008, 17, 241–250 http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2008/0285CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [30] Gagge A.P., Stolwijk J.A.J., Nishi Y., An effective temperature scale based on a simple model of human physiological regulatory response. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Transactions, 1971, 77, 247–262 Google Scholar

  • [31] Höppe P., Die Energiebalanz des Menschen [The human heat balance]. Dissertation. Wissenschaftlicher Mitteilung of Universität München, 49, 1984, 171p (in German) Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2011-03-27

Published in Print: 2011-03-01


Citation Information: Open Geosciences, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 90–100, ISSN (Online) 2391-5447, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13533-011-0010-x.

Export Citation

© 2011 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Jana Fischereit and K. Heinke Schlünzen
International Journal of Biometeorology, 2018
[2]
Sajad Zare, Naser Hasheminezhad, Keyvan Sarebanzadeh, Farzaneh Zolala, Rasoul Hemmatjo, and Davoud Hassanvand
Urban Climate, 2018, Volume 26, Page 1
[3]
Dominik Fröhlich and Andreas Matzarakis
Atmosphere, 2018, Volume 9, Number 6, Page 209
[5]
Duncan Mitchell, Edward P. Snelling, Robyn S. Hetem, Shane K. Maloney, Willem Maartin Strauss, Andrea Fuller, and Dehua Wang
Journal of Animal Ecology, 2018
[8]
Peter Hoffmann, Jana Fischereit, Stefan Heitmann, K. Schlünzen, and Ingenuin Gasser
Urban Science, 2018, Volume 2, Number 1, Page 9
[9]
[12]
Ashley M. Broadbent, Andrew M. Coutts, Nigel J. Tapper, Matthias Demuzere, and Jason Beringer
Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 2017
[13]
Ariane Middel, Nancy Selover, Björn Hagen, and Nalini Chhetri
International Journal of Biometeorology, 2016, Volume 60, Number 12, Page 1849
[14]
Ágnes Takács, Márton Kiss, Angela Hof, Eszter Tanács, Ágnes Gulyás, and Noémi Kántor
Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2016, Volume 32, Page 97
[15]
Irina Tumini, Ester Higueras García, and Sergio Baereswyl Rada
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development, 2016, Volume 7, Number 1, Page 22
[16]
Nadine Walikewitz, Britta Jänicke, Marcel Langner, and Wilfried Endlicher
International Journal of Biometeorology, 2015
[17]
Ahriz Atef, Zemmouri Noureddine, and Fezzai Soufiane
Energy Procedia, 2015, Volume 74, Page 273
[18]
Nam-Hyong Ryu and Chun-Seok Lee
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, 2013, Volume 41, Number 6, Page 52
[19]
Aleš Urban and Jan Kyselý
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2014, Volume 11, Number 1, Page 952
[20]
Yung-Chang Chen, Tzu-Ping Lin, and Andreas Matzarakis
Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 2014, Volume 118, Number 3, Page 535
[22]
Dominik Fröhlich and Andreas Matzarakis
Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 2013, Volume 111, Number 3-4, Page 547

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in