Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Geosciences

formerly Central European Journal of Geosciences

Editor-in-Chief: Jankowski, Piotr

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.788
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.899

CiteScore 2018: 1.02

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.295
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.612

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Territorial dynamics and boundary effects in a protected area of the Central Iberian Peninsula

Paloma Heras / Paloma Fernández-Sañudo / Nieves López-Estébanez / María Roldán
Published Online: 2011-03-27 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10085-010-0030-7


We analysed the main changes in land use over a 21 year period within the perimeter of a Protected Natural Area (PNA) and outside this perimeter. The area is characterised by its Mediterranean mid-mountain landscape and its piedmont, which extends almost as far as the city of Madrid. We employed cartography of land use and plant formation from 1980 and 2001. We identified land uses and their changes in this time period in order to determine the principal territorial dynamics (scrub encroachment, urban development, forest encroachment, new pastures and new crops). Subsequently, we performed a comparative analysis between the changes inside and those outside the protected area. The results show that there is a boundary effect between the protected area and the surrounding zone, which is more notable in the areas where urban development has intensified. This kind of research serves to establish whether or not a PNA contributes to protecting and conserving natural resources as compared to what occurs in the unprotected surrounding area, which tends to be subjected to more aggressive dynamics.

Keywords: land-use change; Protected Natural Area; Mediterranean landscape; Spain

  • [1] IUCN (Internatonal Union for Conservation of Nature), The Durban Action Plan, Vth IUCN World Parks Congress, Durban (The South African Republic), 2003 Google Scholar

  • [2] Baeza A., Estades C., Effect of the landscape context on the density and persistence of a predator population in a protected area subject to environmental variability. Biol. Conserv., 143, 2009, 94–101 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.09.008Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] Chape S., Blyth S., Fish L., Fox P., Spalding M., (Compilers), United Nations List of Protected Areas, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK, 2003 Google Scholar

  • [4] Gómez S., Componentes del valor del paisaje mediter-ráneo y el flujo de servicios de los ecosistemas (The components of the Mediterranean landscape value and the flow of ecosystem services), Ecosistemas, 16, 2007, 97–108 (Abstract in english. Full text in spanish) Google Scholar

  • [5] Gordon A., Simondson D., White M., Moilanen A., Bekessy S.A., Integrating conservation planning and land use planning in urban landscapes. Landscape Urban Plan., 91, 2009, 183–194 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2008.12.011CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Bennett G., EECONET: Towards a European Ecological Network. Institute for European Environmental Policy, Arnhem, Holland, 1991 Google Scholar

  • [7] Bennett A.F., Linkages in the landscape. The role of corridors and connectivity in wildlife conservation, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 2003 http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2004.FR.1.enCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8] Múgica M., De Lucio J.V., Martínez C., Sastre P., Atauri J.A., Montes C., Territorial integration of natural protected areas and ecological connectivity within Mediterranean landscapes. Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía, Sevilla, 2002 Google Scholar

  • [9] Woodroffe R., Ginsberg J.R., Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside the protected areas. Science, 280, 1998, 2126–2128 http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5372.2126CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10] Farina A., The Cultural Landscape as a Model for the Integration of Ecology and Economics. BioScience, 50, 2000, 313–320 http://dx.doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2000)050[0313:TCLAAM]2.3.CO;2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11] Ogada M.O.; Woodroffe, R.; Oguge, N.O. & Frank L.G., Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Biol. Conserv., 17, 2003, 1521–1530 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00061.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12] Baskett M.L., Micheli F., Levin S.A., Designing marine reserves for interacting species: insights from theory. Biol. Conserv., 137, 2007, 163–179 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2007.02.013Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13] Olupot W., Barigyira R., Mcneilage A.J., Edge-related variation in medicinal and other “useful” wild plants of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Conserv. Biol., 23, 2009, 1138–1145 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01217.xCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [14] Cody L.M., Diversity, rarity, and conservation in Mediterranean-climate regions. In: M.E. Soulé (Ed.), Conservation Biology: The Science of Scacity and Diversity, Sinauer, Sunderland, 1986, 122‪152 Google Scholar

  • [15] Carey C., Dudley N., Stolton S., Squandering paradise? The importance and vulnerability of the world’s protected areas, World Wildlife Fund for Nature International, Gland, Switzerland, 2000 Google Scholar

  • [16] EEA (European Environmental Agency) Urban sprawl in Europe. The ignored challenge, European Environment Agency, 10, Copenhagen, 2006 Google Scholar

  • [17] Bennett G., Integrating biodiversity conservation and sustainable use: lessons learned from ecological networks, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 2004 Google Scholar

  • [18] Forman R. T. T., Godron M., Landscape ecology, Wiley, New York, 1986 Google Scholar

  • [19] Forman R.T.T., Land mosaics, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 1995 Google Scholar

  • [20] Ishe M., Swedish agricultural landscapes-patterns and changes during the last 50 years, studied by aerial photos. Landscape Urban Plan., 31, 1995, 21–37 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(94)01033-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [21] Olsson E.G., Austrheim G., Grenne S.N., Landscape change patterns in mountains, land use and environmental diversity, Mid-Norway 1960–1993. Landscape Ecol., 15, 2000, 155–170 http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008173628016CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [22] Moreira F., Rego F.C., Ferreira P.G., Temporal (1958–1995) pattern of change in a cultural landscape of north-western Portugal: implications for fire occurrence. Landscape Ecol., 16, 2001, 557–567 http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013130528470CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23] Feranec J., Kopecka M., Vatseva R., Stoimenov A., Otahel J., Betak J., Husar K., Landscape change analysis and assessment (case studies in Slovakia and Bulgaria). Cent. Eur. J. Geosci., 1, 2009, 106–119 http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10085-009-0005-8CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24] Esri, Environmental System Research Institute, Inc., ArcView 3.2 Vector and Raster GIS Analysis Tool, USA, 2009 Google Scholar

  • [25] Ramos A., Formaciones vegetales y usos actuales del suelo de Madrid. Memoria y Mapa (Plant formations and current land-uses in Madrid (Report and Map). Consejería de Agricultura y Ganadería, Comunidad de Madrid, Escala 1:200.000, 1985 (in Spanish) Google Scholar

  • [26] Comunidad de Madrid, Descripción de unidades de vegetación: clasificación sistemática. Mapa de Vegetación 1997, Consejería de Medio Ambiente. Comunidad de Madrid, 1997 (in Spanish) Google Scholar

  • [27] Muñoz C.; Gil T.; De Las Heras P. González N., Memoria del mapa de vegetación de la Sierra de Guadarrama (Vertiente Madrileña) (Report and Vegetation Map of Guadarrama Range [Madrid side]). Informe Técnico Centro de Investigaciones Ambientales de la Comunidad de Madrid, 2004 Google Scholar

  • [28] IUCN, Guidelines for protected areas management categories, CNPPA and WCMC, IUCN, GLAND, Switzerland and Camdbrige, UK, 1994 Google Scholar

  • [29] Gómez-Sal A., Belmontes J.A., Nicolau, J.M., Assessing landscape values: a proposal for a multidimensional conceptual model. Ecol. Model., 168, 2003, 319–341 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(03)00144-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [30] De Miguel J.M., Naturaleza y configuración del paisaje agrosilvopastoral en la conservación de la diversidad biológica en España (Nature and configuration of agricultural-forestry-pasture landscape in the conservation of biological diversity in Spain). Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 72, 1999, 547–557 Google Scholar

  • [31] Gómez-Sal A., Álvarez J., Muñoz-Yanguas M.A., Rebollo S., Patterns of change in the agrarian landscape in the area of the Cantabrian Mountains (Spain) Assessment by transition probabilities. In: Bunce R.G.H., Ryszkowski L., Paoletti M.G. (Eds.) Landscape ecology and agrosystems, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, USA, 1993 Google Scholar

  • [32] González Bernáldez F., Rey Benayas J.M., Levassor C., Peco B., Landscape ecology of uncultivated lowlands in Central Spain. Landscape Ecol., 3,1, 1989, 3–18 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00157752CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [33] De las Heras P., Fernández-Sañudo P., López Estébanez N., Roldán Martín M.J., Landscape dynamics in a protected natural area “Cuenca Alta del Manzanares” Regional Park (Madrid, Spain), Extended Abstracts from The Permanent European Conference for the Study of the Rural Landscape, European Rural Future: Landscape as an Interface, 2007 http://www.geog.fu-berlin.de/~pecsrl/index.html Google Scholar

  • [34] Jongman R.H.G., Homogenisation and fragmentation of the European landscape: ecological consequences and solutions. Landscape Urban Plan., 58, 2002, 211–221 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(01)00222-5CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [35] Observatorio de la Sostenibilidad de España (OSE), Cambios de ocupación del suelo en España. Implicaciones para la sostenibilidad (Changes in land occupation in Spain and its implications for sustainability), Madrid, 2006 (in Spanish) Google Scholar

  • [36] Hilty J.A., Lidicker Jr. W.Z., Merendender A.M., Corridor Ecology: the science and practice of linking landscapes for biodiversity conservation. Island Press, Washington, DC, 2006 Google Scholar

  • [37] Fernández-Sañudo P., Gil T., Fragmentation effects on the state of conservation of forest and shrub ecosystems in “Sierra de Guadarrama” future National Park (Madrid, Spain). In: Smithers R. (Ed.): Proceedings of the 12th annual IALE (International Association for Landscape Ecology) conference “Landscape ecology of trees and forests”, Cirencester, UK, 2004, 355–356 Google Scholar

  • [38] Voth A., National parks and rural development in Spain. In: Mose I. (Ed.), Protected areas and regional development in Europe — Towards a new model for the 21st century. Ashgate, Aldershot, England, 2007, 141–160 Google Scholar

  • [39] Barreiro M.M., Tripler C.E., Forest remnants along urban-rural gradients: examining their potential for global change research. Ecosystems, 8, 2005, 568–582 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-003-0172-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [40] Mcneely J.A., Protected areas for the 21st century: working to provide benefits to society. Biodivers. Conserv., 3, 1994, 390–405 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00057797CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [41] Halladay P., Gilmour D.A., Conserving Biodiversity Outside Protected Areas: The Role of Traditional Agro-Ecosystems, Gland, Switzerland, IUCN, 1995 Google Scholar

  • [42] Stanners D., Bourdeau P. (Ed.), Europe’s environment. The Dobrís assessment. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 1995 Google Scholar

  • [43] Washer D., Múgica M., Gulinck H., Establishing targets to assess agricultural impacts on European landscapes. In: Brower F., Crabtree R. (Eds.), “Environ-mental indicators and agricultural policy”. CABI Publishing, The Hague, 1999, 73–87 http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9780851992891.0073CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [44] Sastre P., Guillén D.F., Cereal steppes in Central Spain. In: Buguñá Hoffman L. (Ed.), Agricultural functions and biodiversity — A European stakeholder approach to the CBD agricultural biodiversity work program, European Centre for Nature Conservation, Tilburg, 2001 Google Scholar

  • [45] Fernández-Sañudo P., Gil T., Study of the effect of the transportation infrastructures on habitats fragmentation in the future National Park “Sierra de Guadarrama” (Madrid, Spain). IENE (Infra Eco Network Europe) Conference 2003, Proceedings of the “International conference on habitat fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure”. Institute of Nature Conservation, Brussels, Belgium, 2003, http://www.iene.info Google Scholar

  • [46] Costanza R., D’arge R., De Groot R., Farber S., Grasso M., Hannon B., Limburg K., Naeem S., et al., The value of the world’s ecosystems services and natural capital. Nature, 387, 1997, 253–260 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/387253a0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [47] De Lucio Fernández J.V., Atauri Mezquida J.A., Sastre Olmos P., Martínez Alandi C., Conectividad y redes de espacios naturales protegidos: del modelo teórico a la visión práctica de la gestión (Connectivity and networks of natural protected areas: from the theoretical model to the practical view of management). In: García Mora R. (coordinator) Conectividad am-biental: las áreas protegidas en la cuenca mediter-ránea (Environmental connectivity: protected areas in the Mediterranean context), Consejería de Medio Ambiente. Junta de Andalucía, Spain, 2003, 29–53 Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2011-03-27

Published in Print: 2011-03-01

Citation Information: Open Geosciences, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1–11, ISSN (Online) 2391-5447, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10085-010-0030-7.

Export Citation

© 2011 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Siyuan He, Louise Gallagher, Yang Su, Lei Wang, and Hongguang Cheng
Ecosystem Services, 2018, Volume 31, Page 169
Robert J. Wilson, Jonathan Bennie, Callum R. Lawson, David Pearson, Gorka Ortúzar-Ugarte, and David Gutiérrez
Journal of Insect Conservation, 2015, Volume 19, Number 2, Page 205

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in