Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Geodesy and Cartography

The Journal of Committee on Geodesy of Polish Academy of Sciences

2 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

The analysis of visual variables for use in the cartographic design of point symbols for mobile Augmented Reality applications

Łukasz Halik
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Cartography and Geomatics, Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan, Collegium Geographicum, 27 Dziegielowa St., 61-680 Poznan, Poland
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2012-11-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10277-012-0019-4


The objective of the present deliberations was to systematise our knowledge of static visual variables used to create cartographic symbols, and also to analyse the possibility of their utilisation in the Augmented Reality (AR) applications on smartphone-type mobile devices. This was accomplished by combining the visual variables listed over the years by different researchers. Research approach was to determine the level of usefulness of particular characteristics of visual variables such as selective, associative, quantitative and order. An attempt was made to provide an overview of static visual variables and to describe the AR system which is a new paradigm of the user interface.

Changing the approach to the presentation of point objects is caused by applying different perspective in the observation of objects (egocentric view) than it is done on traditional analogue maps (geocentric view). Presented topics will refer to the fast-developing field of cartography, namely mobile cartography. Particular emphasis will be put on smartphone-type mobile devices and their applicability in the process of designing cartographic symbols.


Celem artykułu było usystematyzowanie wiedzy na temat statycznych zmiennych wizualnych, które sa kluczowymi składnikami budujacymi sygnatury kartograficzne. Podjeto próbe zestawienia zmiennych wizualnych wyodrebnionych przez kartografów na przestrzeni ostatnich piecdziesieciu lat, zaczynajac od klasyfikacji przedstawionej przez J. Bertin’a. Dokonano analizy stopnia uzytecznosci poszczególnych zmiennych graficznych w aspekcie ich wykorzystania w projektowaniu znaków punktowych dla mobilnych aplikacji tworzonych w technologii Rzeczywistosci Rozszerzonej (Augmented Reality). Zmienne poddano analizie pod wzgledem czterech charakterystyk: selektywnosci, skojarzeniowosci, odzwierciedlenia ilosci oraz porzadku. W artykule zwrócono uwage na odmienne zastosowanie perspektywy pomiedzy tradycyjnymi analogowymi mapami (geocentrycznosc) a aplikacjami tworzonymi w technologii Rozszerzonej Rzeczywistosci (egocentrycznosc). Tresci prezentowane w pracy dotycza szybko rozwijajacej sie gałezi kartografii - kartografii mobilnej. Dodatkowy nacisk połozony został na próbe implementacji załozen projektowania punktowych znaków kartograficznych na urzadzenia mobilne typu smartphone.

Keywords : visual variables; cartographic symbols; Augmented Reality; smartphone

  • Azuma, R.T. (1997). A Survey of Augmented Reality. Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6, 355-385.Google Scholar

  • Berfield, W. Caudell, T. (2001). Basic Concepts in Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality, In Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality. (Eds.), Barfield W., Caudell T., (3-26), Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J.Google Scholar

  • Bertin, J. (1967/83). Semiology of Graphics: Diagrams, Networks, Maps. Wisconsin: Uniwersity of Wisconsin Press. (first published in French in 1967 translated by William J. Berg in 1983).Google Scholar

  • Butchart, B. (2011), Architectural Styles for Augmented Reality in Smartphones. In Third International AR Standards Meeting, 15-16 June 2011 (pp. 1-7). Taichung, Taiwan: Open Geospatial Consortium.Google Scholar

  • Carpendale, M.S.T. (2003). Considering visial variables as a basis for information visualization. Calgary, Canada: University of Calgary.Google Scholar

  • Danado, J. Dias, E. Romao, T. Correi, N. Trabuco, A. Santos, C. Serpa, J. Costa, M. Camaro, A. (2005). Mobile Environmental Visualization. The Cartographic Journal 42(1), 61-68.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dent, B.D. Torguson, J. Holder, T.W. (2009). Cartography: Thematic Map Design (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.Google Scholar

  • Gotlib, D. (2011). Methods of cartographic presentation for mobile navigation and location based systems. (In Polish). Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej.Google Scholar

  • H¨ollerer, T.H. Feiner, S.K. (2004). Mobile Augmented Reality. In Telegeoinformatics: Location-Based Computing and Services. Karimi H. Hammad A. (eds.), Tylor & Francis Books Ltd.Google Scholar

  • Kraak, M.J. Ormeling, F. (2003). Cartography: Visualization of Geospatial Data (2nd ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar

  • Krygier, J.B. Wood, D. (2005). Making Maps: A Visual Guide to Map Design for GIS. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

  • MacWilliams, A. Reicher, T. Klinker, G. Bruegge, B. (2004). Design Patterns for Augmented Reality Systems. In International Workshop exploring the Design and Engineering of Mixed Reality Systems-MIXER, 2004, Funchal, Madeira, CEUR Workshop Proceedings.Google Scholar

  • MacEachren A.M., (1995): How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization and Design. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

  • Medynska-Gulij, B. (2008). Point Symbols: Investigating Principles and Originality in Cartographic Design. The Cartographic Journal, 45 (1), 62-67.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Medynska-Gulij, B. (2011). Cartography and geovisualization. (In Polish) Warszawa: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.Google Scholar

  • Meng, L. (2005). Egocentric design of map-based mobile services. The Cartographic Journal, 42(1), 5-13.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Morrison, J.L. (1974). A theoretical framework for cartographic generalization with the emphasis on the process of symbolization. International Yearbook of Cartography, 14, 115-127.Google Scholar

  • Schmalstieg, D. Reitmayr, G. (2006). Augmented Reality as a Medium for Cartography, In: Cartwright W., Peterson M.P. Georg G. Multimedia Cartography (2nd ed.), (pp. 267-282). Springer Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K.Google Scholar

  • Slocum, T.A. McMaster, R.B. Kessler, F.C. Howard, H.H. (2010). Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization (3rd ed.). London: Pearson Education LTD.Google Scholar

  • ˇSpatenkov´a, O. Demˇsar, U. Krisp, J. (2007). Self-Organising Maps for exploration of spatio-temporal emergency response data. 9 th International Conference on Geocomputation 3-5 September 2007.Google Scholar

  • Tyner, J.A. (2010). Principles of Map Design. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2012-11-20

Published in Print: 2012-11-01

Citation Information: Geodesy and Cartography, Volume 61, Issue 1, Pages 19–30, ISSN (Online) , ISSN (Print) 2080-6736, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10277-012-0019-4.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in