Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Global Jurist

Ed. by Mattei, Ugo / Monti, Alberto

3 Issues per year


CiteScore 2016: 0.07

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.148
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.008

Online
ISSN
1934-2640
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 17, Issue 2

Issues

Ban without Prosecution, Conviction without Punishment, and Circumcision without Cutting: A Critical Appraisal of Anti-FGM Laws in Europe

Dr. Maria Caterina La BarberaORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2065-6686
Published Online: 2017-03-08 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/gj-2016-0012

Abstract

This article focuses on anti-FGM laws aiming at eliminating gender-based violence. It uses intersectionality to question the underlying conceptualization of gender-based violence, and examines how the problem is represented, and which solutions have been proposed by French, British and Italian laws, showing their inconsistencies and biases. It also considers silenced dissenting voices by focusing on the proposal of “circumcision without cutting”. The main goal is to uncover how anti-FGM laws generate new forms of vulnerability for African descent women in Europe, calling for a more complex articulation of gender at the intersection with migration status, ethnicity and neo-colonial relations.

Keywords: anti-FGM laws; body modifications; intersectionality; female genital mutilation; gender-based violence

References

  • Abdulcadir, J., C. Margairaz, M. Boulvain, et al. 2011. Care of Women with Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. Swiss Medical Weekly 140,http://www.smw.ch/scripts/stream_pdf.php?doi=smw-2011-13137 .

  • Abdulcadir, O. 2006. “Research Center for Preventing and Curing Ritual Interventions on Female Genitalia and Its Complications.” In Bodily Integrity and the Politics of Circumcision: Culture, Controversy, and Change. , edited by G. Denniston, P. Grassivaro Gallo, F.M. Hodges, et al., 117–122. New York: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Abu-Sahlieh, S.A. 2006. “Male and Female Circumcision: The Myth of the Difference.” In Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. , edited by R.M. Abusharaf, 47–72. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar

  • Abusharaf, R.M. 2001. “Virtuous Cuts: Female Genital Circumcision in an African Ontology.” Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 12: 112–140.Google Scholar

  • Adams, K.E. 2004. “What’s Normal: Female Genital Mutilation, Psychology, and Body Image.” Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association 59: 168–170.Google Scholar

  • Ahmadu, F. 2007. “Ain’t I a Woman Too? Challenging Myths of Sexual Dysfunction in Circumcised Women.” In Transcultural Bodies. Female Genital Cutting in Global Context. , edited by B. Shell-Duncan, and Y. Hernlund. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University Press, pp.278-310.Google Scholar

  • Aixelá, Y. 2009. “El Debate Sobre Las Circuncisiones Femeninas Y Su Impacto En El Marco Jurídico, En Los Monoteísmos Y En Los Feminismos En Egipto.” In Desvelando El Cuerpo. , edited by J. Martí, and Y. Aixelà, 287–298. Barcelona: CSIC.Google Scholar

  • Aixelà, Y 2010. “Feminine Circumcision in Egypt. A Critical Approach.” The Scientific Journal of Humanistic Studies 2: 1–12.Google Scholar

  • Allotey, P., L. Manderson, and S. Grover. 2001. “The Politics of Female Genital Surgery in Displaced Communities.” Critical Public Health 11: 189–201.Google Scholar

  • American Academy of Pediatrics. 2010. “Policy Statement: Ritual Genital Cutting of Female Minors.” Pediatrics 125: 1088–1093.Google Scholar

  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 2007. “ACOG Committee Opinion No. 378: Vaginal Rejuvenation and Cosmetic Vaginal Procedures.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 110: 737–738.Google Scholar

  • American Society of Plastic Surgeons. 2013. 2012 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report ASPS National Clearinghouse of Plastic Surgery Statistics, http://www.plasticsurgery.org/news-and-resources/2012-plastic-surgery-statistics.html (retrieved in August 2016).

  • An-Na’im, A. 1994. “State Responsibility under International Human Rights Law to Change Religious and Customary Laws.” In Human Rights of Women: National and International Perspectives. , edited by R. Cook, 167–188. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar

  • Bacchi, C. 1999. Women, Policy and Politics: The Construction of Policy Problems. London: Sage.Google Scholar

  • Basile, F. 2013. Il reato di “pratiche di mutilazione degli organi genitali femminili” alla prova della giurisprudenza: un commento alla prima (e finora unica) applicazione giurisprudenziale dell’art. 583 bis cp. Stato, Chiese e pluralismo confessionale 24:1–23, http://www.statoechiese.it/images/stories/2013.7/basile_il_reato.pdf.

  • Boyle, E., and A. Corl. 2010. “Law and Culture in a Global Context: Interventions to Eradicate Female Genital Cutting.” Annual Review Law & Social Science 6: 195–215.Google Scholar

  • Carens, J. 2000. Culture, Citizenship and Community: A Contextual Exploration of Justice as Evenhandedness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Carra, F., and P. Fiorini. 2012. French Citizenship. Milano: Fondazione Ismu.Google Scholar

  • Carreras, M. 1999. “Cuando el Derecho se convierte en política: reflexiones sobre Critical Legal Studies.” Isegoría 21: 165–174.Google Scholar

  • Catania, L., and O. Abdulcadir. 2005. Ferite per Sempre. Le Mutilazioni Genitali Femminili E La Proposta Del Rito Simbolico Alternativo. Roma: DeriveApprodi.Google Scholar

  • Catania, L., O. Abdulcadir, V. Puppo, J.B. Verde, J. Abdulcadir, and D. Abdulcadir. 2007. “Pleasure and Orgasm in Women with Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C).” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 4: 1666–1678.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chambers, C. 2004. “Are Breast Implants Better than Female Genital Mutilation? Autonomy Gender Equality and Nussbaum’s Political Liberalism.” Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 7: 1–33.Google Scholar

  • Chase, C. 2002. “'Cultural Practice' or 'Reconstructive Surgery'? US Genital Cutting, the Intersex Movement, and Medical Double Standards.” In Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood: Disputing US Polemics. , edited by S. James, and C. Robertson, 126–151. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar

  • Chelala, C. 1998. “An Alternative Way to Stop Female Genital Mutilation.” The Lancet 352(9122): 126. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Coco, L. 1994. “Silicone Breast Implants in America: A Choice of the Official Breast?. in Controlling Processes, Edited by L. Nader.” Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers 77: 103–132.Google Scholar

  • Cohen, S. 2005. Why Aren’t Jewish Women Circumcised?: Gender and Covenant in Judaism. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar

  • Colaianni, N. 2006. Eguaglianza E Diversità Culturali E Religiose. Un Percorso Costituzionale. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar

  • Coleman, D. 1998. “The Seattle Compromise: Multicultural Sensitivity and Americanization.” Duke Law Journal 47: 717–783.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Combahee River Collective. 1982. “A Black Feminist Statement [1977].” In All the Women are White, All the Blacks are Men, but Some of Us are Brave: Black Women’s Studies. , edited by G. Hull, P. Scott, and B. Smith, 13–22. New York: The Feminist Press.Google Scholar

  • Commission Nationale Consultative sur les Droit de l’Homme. 2013. Avis sur les mutilations sexuelles féminines, http://www.cncdh.fr/sites/default/files/13.11.28_avis_sur_les_mutilations_sexuelles_feminines_0.pdf (retrieved in January 2017).

  • Commission Nationale Consultative sur les Droits de l’Homme. 2004. Etude sur la pratique des propositions sexuelles féminines Mutilations in France, http://www.cncdh.fr/fr/publications/etude-et-propositions-sur-la-pratique-des-mutilations-sexuelles-feminines-en-france (retrieved in January 2017).

  • Crenshaw, K. 1989. “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics.” University of Chicago Legal Forum 14: 139–167.Google Scholar

  • Crenshaw, K. 1991. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color.” Stanford Law Review 43: 1241–1299.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Crenshaw, K. 2011. “Postscript.” In Framing Intersectionality: Debates on a Multi-Faceted Concept in Gender Studies. , edited by H. Lutz, M.T. Herrera Vivar, and L. Supik, 221–233. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar

  • Crenshaw, K., N. Gotanda, G. Peller, and K. Thomas. 1995. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement. New York: New Press.Google Scholar

  • Darby, R., and J.S. Svoboda. 2007. “A Rose by Any book Name? Rethinking the Similarities and Differences between Male and Female Genital Cutting.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 21: 301–323.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Davis, K. 2003. “Surgical Passing: Or Why Michael Jackson’s Nose Makes Us Uneasy.” Feminist Theory 4: 73–92.Google Scholar

  • DiPietro, F. 2006. Le norme sul divieto delle pratiche di mutilazione femminile. Diritto & Diritti, http://www.diritto.it/pdf/22492.pdf.

  • Donato, K., D. Gabaccia, J. Holdaway, et al. 2006. “A Glass Half Full? Gender in Migration Studies.” International Migration Review 40: 3–26.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dustin, M. 2010. “Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in the UK Challenging the Inconsistencies.” European Journal of Women’s Studies 17(1): 7–23.Google Scholar

  • Earp, B. 2016. “Between Moral Relativism and Moral Hypocrisy: Reframing the Debate on FGM.” Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26(2): 105–144.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ehrenreich, N., and M. Barr. 2005. “Intersex Surgery, Female Genital Cutting, and Selective Condemnation of Cultural Practices.” Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Law Review 40: 71–140.Google Scholar

  • Elting, L., and S. Isenberg. 1976. The Consumer’s Guide to Successful Surgery. New York: St. Martin University Press.Google Scholar

  • Elting, L., and S. Isenberg. 1976. The Consumer’s Guide to Successful Surgery. New York: St. Martin University Press.Google Scholar

  • Essén, B., and S. Johnsdotter. 2004. “Female Genital Mutilation in the West: Traditional Circumcision versus Genital Cosmetic Surgery.” Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 83: 611–613.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Floris, P. 1984. “Nota a Sentenza: Sezione I penale; sentenza 13 dicembre 1983.” Il Foro Italiano 107: 361–386.Google Scholar

  • Fornasari, G. 2008. “Mutilazioni Genitali Femminili E Multiculturalismo. Premesse per Un Discorso Giuspenalistico.” In Legalità Penale E Crisi Del Diritto Oggi. Un Percorso Interdisciplinare. , edited by A. Bernardi, B. Pastore, and A Pugiotto, 179–202. Milano: Giuffre.Google Scholar

  • Fraser, N. 1990. “Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy.” Social Text 25: 56–80.Google Scholar

  • Freedman, J. 2007. “Women, Islam and rights in Europe: Beyond a universalist/culturalist dichotomy”. Review of International Studies 33: 29–44.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Galeotti, E. 2007. “Relativism, Universalism, and Applied Ethics: The Case of Female Circumcision.” Constellations 14: 91–111.Google Scholar

  • Grande, E. 2004. “Hegemonic Human Rights and African Resistance: Female Circumcision in a Broader Comparative Perspective.” Global Jurist Frontiers 4: 1–21.Google Scholar

  • Grigg, M., S. Bondurant, and V. Ernster. 2000. Information for Women about the Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar

  • Guiné, A., and F.J. Moreno Fuentes. 2007. “Engendering Redistribution, Recognition, and Representation: The Case of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in the United Kingdom and France.” Politics & Society 35: 477–519.Google Scholar

  • Gunning, I. 1991. “Arrogant Perception, World-Travelling and Multicultural Feminism: The Case of Female Genital Surgeries.” Columbia Human Rights Law Review 23: 189–248.Google Scholar

  • Habermas, J. 1991. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Halim, A.M. 2007. “From Bagadadji to Abu Hashim: New Approaches to Combat Female Circumcision.” Review of African Political Economy 34(114): 719–725.Google Scholar

  • Hancock, A. 2007. “When Multiplication Doesn’t Equal Quick Addition: Examining Intersectionality as a Research Paradigm.” Perspectives on Politics 5(1): 63–79.Google Scholar

  • Harris, A.P. 2010. “Beyond the Monster Factory: Gender Violence, Race, and the Liberatory Potential of Restorative Justice.” Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law, and Justice 25: 199–236.Google Scholar

  • Hill Collins, P. 2000. “Gender, Black Feminism, and Black Political Economy.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 568: 41–53.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • House of Lords. 1983. Prohibition of Female Circumcision Bill, Hansard of 10 November 1983 vol. 444, cc. 990-1003, http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1983/nov/10/prohibition-of-female-circumcision-bill (retreived in January 2017).

  • Imoh, A., and R. Ame. 2012. Childhoods at the Intersection of the Local and the Global. London: Palgrave Macmillan .Google Scholar

  • Johansen, E. 2002. “Pain as a Counterpoint to Culture: Toward an Analysis of Pain Associated with Infibulation among Somali Immigrants in Norway.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 16: 312–340.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Johansen, E. 2007. “Experiencing Sex in Exile. Can Genitals Change Their Gender? on Conceptions and Experiences Related to Female Genital Cutting (FGC) among Somalis in Norway.” In Transcultural Bodies: Female Genital Cutting in Global Context. , edited by B. Shell-Duncan, and Y. Hernlund, 248–277. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar

  • Johansen, R.E., J.N. Diop, G. Laverack, et al. 2013. “What Works and What Does Not: A Discussion of Popular Approaches for the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation.” Obstetrics and Gynecology International. DOI:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Johnsdotter, S. 2007. “Persistence of Tradition or Reassessment of Cultural Practices in Exile?Discourses on Female Circumcision among and about Swedish Somalia.” In Transcultural Bodies. Female Genital Cutting in Global Context. , edited by B. Shell-Duncan, and Y. Hernlund, 107–134. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar

  • Johnsdotter, S. 2013. “Discourses on Sexual Pleasure after Genital Modifications: The Fallacy of Genital Determinism (A Response to J. Steven Svoboda).” Global Discourse 3(2): 256–265.Google Scholar

  • Johnsdotter, S., and B. Essén. 2016. “Cultural Change after Migration: Circumcision of Girls in Western Migrant Communities.” Best Practice & Research: Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology 32: 15–25.Google Scholar

  • Kaplan, A., and A. López. 2010. Mapa De La Mutilación Genital Femenina En España 2009. Bellaterra: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, http://publicacions.uab.es/pdf_llibres/AAP0001.pdf.Google Scholar

  • Kennedy, D. 2002. “The Critique of Rights in Critical Legal Studies.” In Left Legalism/Left Critique. , edited by J. Halley, and W Brown. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar

  • Kershaw, G. 1997. Mau Mau from Below. Athens (OH): Ohio University Press.Google Scholar

  • Kinsey, A., W. Pomeroy, C. Martin, and P. Gebhard. 1953. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.Google Scholar

  • Komisaruk, B.R., N. Wise, E. Frangos, W.C. Liu, K. Allen, and S. Brody. 2011. “Women’s Clitoris, Vagina, and Cervix Mapped on the Sensory Cortex: Fmri Evidence.” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 8(10): 2822–2830.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kukathas, C. 2001. “Is Feminism Bad For Multiculturalism?” Public Affairs Quarterly 15: 83–98.Google Scholar

  • Kukathas, C. 2012. “Exit, Freedom and Gender.” In On Exit: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Right of Exit in Liberal Multicultural Societies. , edited by D. Borchers, and A. Vitikainen, 34–56. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • LaBarbera, MC. 2009b. “Revisiting the Anti-Female Genital Mutilation Feminist Discourse.” Diritto & Questioni Pubbliche 9: 485–507, http://www.dirittoequestionipubbliche.org/page/2009_n9/05_studi-03_MC_LaBarbera.pdf.Google Scholar

  • LaBarbera, MC. 2010. “Intervenciones sobre los genitales femeninos: Entre el bisturí del cirujano plástico y el cuchillo ritual.” Revista De Dialectología Y Tradiciones Populares 65(2): 465–488.Google Scholar

  • LaBarbera, MC. 2012. “Intersectional-Gender and the Locationality of Women In Transit.” In Feminism and Migration. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar

  • LaBarbera, MC. 2015. Identity and Migration in Europe: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer .Google Scholar

  • LaBarbera, MC. 2016. “Women, Violence and Tradition.” Feminist Review 112: 11–13.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lamont, M., and V. Molnar. 2002. “The Study of Boundaries in the Social Sciences.” Annual Review of Sociology 28: 167–195.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Le Jeune, G., and J. Mackie. 2008. Social Dynamics of Abandonment of Harmful Practices: A New Look at The Theory. Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Working Paper n. 20, https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/iwp_2009_06.pdf(retrieved in August 2016).

  • Levin, R.J. 2006. “The Breast/Nipple/Areola Complex and Human Sexuality.” Sexual and Relationship Therapy 21(02): 237–249.Google Scholar

  • Leye, E, and J De Blonde. (2004).A Comparative Analysis of the Different Legal Approaches in the 15 EU Member States, and the Respective Judicial Outcomes in Belgium, France, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Ghent: International Centre for Reproductive Health, ICRH.Google Scholar

  • Leye, E., and J. De Blonde. 2004. A Comparative Analysis of the Different Legal Approaches in the 15 EU Member States, and the Respective Judicial Outcomes in Belgium, France, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Ghent: International Centre for Reproductive Health, ICRH.Google Scholar

  • Leye, E., and A. Sabbe. 2009. Responding to Female Genital Mutilation in Europe. Striking the Right Balance between Prosecution and Prevention. A Review of Legislation. Ghent: International Centre for Reproductive Health, ICRH.Google Scholar

  • Liao, L.M., and S.M. Creighton. 2007. “Requests for Cosmetic Genitoplasty: How Should Healthcare Providers Respond?” British Medical Journal 334: 1090–1092.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lloyd, J., N. Crouch, C. Minto, et al. 2005. “Female Genital Appearance: Normality Unfolds.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 112: 643–646.Google Scholar

  • Lorde, A. 1982. Zami: A New Spelling of My Name. Watertown: Persephone Press.Google Scholar

  • Masters, W., V. Johnson, and R. Kolodny. 1995. Human Sexuality. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar

  • Matsuda, M. 1991. “Beside My Sister, Facing the Enemy: Legal Theory Out of Coalition.” Stanford Law Review 43: 1183–1192.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • McAdams, R.H. 2000. “An Attitudinal Theory of Expressive Law.” Oregon Law Review 79: 339–390.Google Scholar

  • Melching, M. 2001. “Abandoning Female Genital Cutting in Africa.” In Eye to Eye: Women Practicing Development across Cultures. , edited by S. Perry, and C Schenck, 156–170. London: Zed Book.Google Scholar

  • Miazzi, L. 2008. Infanzia. donne e famiglie immigrate: discriminazione e intervento giurisdizionale. Diritto & Questioni Pubbliche 8:103–137.Google Scholar

  • Minda, G. 1995. Postmodern Legal Movements: Law and Jurisprudence at Century’s End. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar

  • Narayan, U. 2000. “Essence of Culture and A Sense of History: A Feminist Critique of Cultural Essentialism.” In Decentering the Center: Philosophy for a Multicultural, Postcolonial, and Feminist World. , edited by U. Narayan, and S. Harding, 80–100. Bloomington: Indiana University Press .Google Scholar

  • Njambi, W. 2007. “Irua Ria Atumia and Anti-Colonial Struggles among the Gikuyu of Kenya: A Counter Narrative on Female Genital Mutilation.” Critical Sociology 33: 689–708.Google Scholar

  • Nnaemeka, O. 2001. “If Female Circumcision Did Not Exist, Western Feminism Would Invent It.” In Eye to Eye: Women Practicing Development across Cultures. , edited by S. Perry, and C. Schenk, 171–189. London: Zed Book.Google Scholar

  • Nnaemeka, O. 2005. Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses. Westport (CT): Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Nolin, C. 2006. Transnational Ruptures: Gender and Forced Migration. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar

  • Nussbaum, M. 1999. Sex and Social Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • O’Connell, H., J. Hutson, C. Anderson, et al. 1998. “Anatomical Relationship between Urethra and Clitoris.” The Journal of Urology 159: 1892–1897.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • O’Connell, H., K. Sanjeevan, and J. Hutson. 2005. “Anatomy of the Clitoris.” The Journal of Urology 174: 1189–1195.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Oba, A. 2008. “Female Circumcision as Female Genital Mutilation: Human Rights or Cultural Imperialism?” Global Jurist Frontiers 8: 1–38.Google Scholar

  • Obermeyer, C. 1999. “Female Genital Surgery: The Known, the Unknown, the Unknowable.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 13(1): 79–106.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Obiora, A. 1996. “Bridges and Barricades: Rethinking Polemics and Intransigence in the Campaign against Female Circumcision.” Case Western Reserve Law Review 47: 275–378.Google Scholar

  • Obiora, A. 2001. “Female Excision: Cultural Concerns.” International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences 5442–5447.Google Scholar

  • Okin, S. 1999. “Is multiculturalism bad for women?” In Is multiculturalism bad for women?, edited by J. Cohen, M. C. Nussbaum, and M. Howard, 7–24. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

  • Okin, S 2002. “Mistress of Their Own Destiny”: Group Rights, Gender, and Realistic Rights of Exit. Ethics 112: 205–230.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Okonofua, F., U. Larsen, F. Oronsaye, et al. 2002. “Association between Female Genital Cutting and Correlates of Sexual and Gynaecological Morbidity in Edo State, Nigeria.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 109: 1089–1096.Google Scholar

  • Pasquinelli, C. 2007. Infibulazione: Il Corpo Violato. Roma: Meltemi.Google Scholar

  • Pedersen, S. 1991. “National Bodies, Unspeakable Acts: The Sexual Politics of Colonial Policy-Making.” The Journal of Modern History 63(4): 647–680.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Peroni, L. 2016. “Violence against Migrant Women: The Istanbul Convention through a Postcolonial Feminist Lens.” Feminist Legal Studies 24(1): 49–67.Google Scholar

  • Presley, C. 1988. “The Mau Mau Rebellion, Kikuyu Women, and Social Change.” Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines 22: 502–527.Google Scholar

  • Public Policy Advisory Network on Female Genital Surgeries in Africa. 2012. “Seven Things to Know about Female Genital Surgeries in Africa.” Hastings Center Report 42: 19–27.Google Scholar

  • Puppo, V. 2013. “Can Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery Be Considered or Classified as Female Genital Mutilation Type IV?” Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 75(3): 215–216.Google Scholar

  • Rahman, A., and N. Toubia. 2000. Female Genital Mutilation: A Practical Guide to Worldwide Laws & Policies. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar

  • Ruskola, T. 2013. Legal Orientalism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar

  • Sheehan, E. 1981. “Victorian Clitoridectomy: Isaac Baker Brown and His Harmless Operative Procedure.” Medical Anthropology Newsletter 12: 9–15.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sheldon, S., and S. Wilkinson. 1998. “Female Genital Mutilation and Cosmetic Surgery: Regulating Non-Therapeutic Body Modification.” Bioethics 12: 263–285.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Shell-Duncan, B. 2001. “The Medicalization of Female Circumcision: Harm Reduction or Promotion of a Dangerous Practice?” Social Science & Medicine 52: 1013–1028.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Shell-Duncan, B., K. Wander, Y. Hernlund, and A. Moreau. 2013. “Legislating Change? Responses to Criminalizing Female Genital Cutting in Senegal.” Law & Society Review 47: 803–835.Google Scholar

  • Shweder, R.A. 2002. “What about Female Genital Mutilation?‚ and Why Understanding Culture Matters in the First Place.” In Engaging Cultural Differences: The Multicultural Challenge in Liberal Democracies. , edited by R.A Shweder, M. Minow, and H.R. Markus, 216–251. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar

  • Shweder, R.A. 2013. “The Goose and the Gander: The Genital Wars.” Global Discourse 3: 348–366.Google Scholar

  • Spelman, E. 1988. Inessential Woman: Problems of Exclusion in Feminist Thought. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar

  • Svoboda, S. 2013. “Promoting Genital Autonomy by Exploring Commonalities between Male, Female, Intersex, and Cosmetic Female Genital Cutting.” Global Discourse 3: 237–255.Google Scholar

  • Tamir, Y. 1996. “Hands off Clitoridectomy. What Our Revulsion Reveals about Ourselves.” Boston Review 21(3): 21–22.Google Scholar

  • Thomas, L. 2000. “Ngaitana (I Will Circumcise Myself): Lessons from Colonial Campaigns to Ban Excision in Meru, Kenya.” In Female Circumcision in Africa: Culture, Controversy and Change. , edited by B. Shell-Duncan, and Y. Hernlund, 129–150. Boulder (Chicago): Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Tiefer, L. 2008. “Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery: Freakish or Inevitable? Analysis from Medical Marketing, Bioethics, and Feminist Theory.” Feminism Psychology 18: 466–479.Google Scholar

  • Tietjens Meyers, D. 2000. “Feminism and Women’s Autonomy: The Challenge of Female Genital Cutting.” Metaphilosophy 31: 469–491.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • United Nations General Assembly, Third Committee. 2012. Intensifying Global Efforts For The Elimination of Female Genital Mutilations. http://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/resource-pdf/67th_UNGA-Resolution_adopted_on_FGM_0.pdf (retrieved in January 2017).

  • UNPF. 2010. International Day Against Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, http://www.unfpa.org/public/site/global/lang/en/pid/4830 (retrieved in August 2016)..

  • Verkauf, B., J. Von Thron, and W. O’Brien. 1992. “Clitoral Size in Normal Women.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 80: 41–44.Google Scholar

  • Verloo, M. 2007. Multiple Meanings of Gender Equalitya Critical Frame Analysis of Gender Policies in Europe. Budapest: Central European University Press.Google Scholar

  • Volpp, L. 2001. “Feminism versus multiculturalism”. Columbia Law Review 101: 1181–1218.Google Scholar

  • Volpp, L. 2007. “The Culture of Citizenship.” Theoretical Inquiries in Law 8: 571–602.Google Scholar

  • Webber, S., and T. Schonfeld. 2003. “Cutting History, Cutting Culture: Female Circumcision in the United States.” The American Journal of Bioethics 3: 65–66.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Weil-Curiel, L. 2001. “Female Genital Mutilation in France: A Crime Punishable by Law.” In Eye to Eye: Women Practicing Development across Cultures. , edited by S. Perry, and C Schenck, 190–197. London: Zed Book.Google Scholar

  • WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA. 1997. Female Genital Mutilation. A Joint WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA Statement. Geneva: World Health Organization, http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/41903/1/9241561866.pdf.Google Scholar

  • Winter, B. 1994. “Women, the Law, and Cultural Relativism in France: The Case of Excision.” Signs 19: 939–974.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2017-03-08


Citation Information: Global Jurist, Volume 17, Issue 2, 20160012, ISSN (Online) 1934-2640, ISSN (Print) 2194-5675, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/gj-2016-0012.

Export Citation

© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Brian D. Earp and Rebecca Steinfeld
Current Sexual Health Reports, 2018

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in