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Speaking Chinese: A major Challenge in the Construction of Identity and the Preservation of the Peruvian Chinese Community (1870–1930)

说汉语:构建身份认同的重要挑战和秘鲁华人社群的维持 (1870–1930)

Isabelle Lausent-Herrera
Published Online: 2015-04-14 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/glochi-2015-1008


The arrival of around 100,000 Chinese male workers, in Peru between 1849 and 1874 as indentured labor created particularly difficult conditions for the emergence and development of a Chinese community. Arriving without women, the majority of the Chinese founded families in Peru. To conserve a blood link with their Chinese identity, many sought to marry young mixed blood Chinese-Peruvian girls. However, to make up a Chinese community, a Chinese education was considered essential for the transmission and preservation of cultural values and language. There were several attempts to create a Chinese school for the children of the Emperor’s subjects, first by the church in 1882 and later by Chinese officials as early as 1885, following the model of San Francisco and Havana. This article examines the historical development between 1870 and 1930 of the efforts the Chinese community in Peru made in setting up Chinese language education and community associations and the institutions that supported the development.


1849 年到 1874 年间,十万华人男性工人以契约劳工的身份到达秘鲁,华人社群在当地极其艰难的条件出现并发展起来。没有女性伴随,大部分的华人在秘鲁成家。为维持与中国身份的血缘联系,很多人与年轻的华人-秘鲁人混血女子结婚。然而,为了建构华人社群,华语教育被视为是传承和保持文化价值和语言的必要条件。依循旧金山和哈瓦那的模式,华人数次试图为儿童开办中文学校, 1882 年首次由教堂开办,之后 1885 年由中国官官员开办。文章考察了 1870 年到 1930 年秘鲁华人社群为建立中文语言教育和社团组织的努力,以及对其发展作出支持的各种机构。

Keywords: Chinese Educational Mission; Chinese community of Peru; Chinese school; Chung Wha School

关键词: 汉语教育任务、; 秘鲁华语社群、; 中文学校、; 中华学校


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About the article

Isabelle Lausent-Herrera

Dr. Isabelle Lausent-Herrera is a researcher at the French National Research Center (CNRS-CREDA) and lectured on Asiatic immigration in the Americas at the Latin American Institute (IHEAL)-University of Paris III. She obtained her doctorate in geography from the University of Paris VII and graduate also in anthropology and Chinese. Her research in the past 20 years has concerned mainly Chinese immigration to Peru since the republican period up to recent immigration.

She began working in Peru in 1975. Her research initially focused on the transformations that indigenous communities underwent in their process of market integration. Her first research on Chinese immigration in Peru dealt with the freed indenture Chinese workers that rapidly established in Andean peasant communities. She became interested in other Chinese communities that played an important role as pioneers in the Peruvian Amazon region. She has widely published on different aspects of community live stressing the ambiguities of “assimilation” through “mestizaje”: religious syncretism, evangelist movements among Peruvian Chinese community, Chinese temples and societies, Chinese graves in Peru, economic ties between China and Peru, Chinatown in Peru and Cuba, concubines and spouses of Chinese immigrants, Tusan’s (Tusheng’s) identity, Chinese Schools. Ongoing research is focused on new Chinese immigration flows and Chinese cultural diplomacy.

乐山博士是法国国家研究中心的学者,同时也在巴黎第三大学美国亚洲移民和拉丁裔美国人研究院任教。她获得巴黎第四大学地理学博士学位,也同时从人类学和汉语专业毕业。过去20年里,她主要研究自共和时代开始至今的秘鲁中国移民。她从 1975年开始在秘鲁工作。最初的研究关注土生土长的社群在市场化过程中的转变。她首个有关秘鲁中国移民的研究探讨被释放的合同制中国劳工迅速建立起安第斯山农民社群的问题。她也关注在秘鲁亚马逊区域起先锋作用的其他中国移民问题。她的文章涉及移民社会的不同角度问题, 包括通过混血通化问题、宗教混合主义、秘鲁华人社群的福音运动、中国寺庙和社会,秘鲁的中国坟墓,中国和秘鲁的经济联系,秘鲁和古巴的唐人街,中国移民的配偶和小妾,土生华人的身份,中文学校等。未来的研究关注新中国移民潮和中国文化外交。

Published Online: 2015-04-14

Published in Print: 2015-04-01

Citation Information: Global Chinese, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 203–225, ISSN (Online) 2199-4382, ISSN (Print) 2199-4374, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/glochi-2015-1008.

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