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“The language is race and patriotism”: New schools and new Sino-Peruvian press in Peru ——The debate on education of Chinese and Mixed-blood 1931–2015


Isabelle Lausent-Herrera
Published Online: 2015-09-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/glochi-2015-1014


Attempts to establish a college allowing the children of the Chinese community in Peru to learn and speak Chinese and be raised according to the Chinese cultural traditions began in 1886 (Lausent-Herrera 2015). These attempts coming from Chinese institutions as Beneficencia China (Chinese Benevolent Association) as well as the Catholic Church had relatively little success. Travelling to China and private tuition were for a long time the only ways to preserve the Chinese identity and the use of the language. In the 1920s the community became wealthier and politicized, the education issue was at the center of social life and became the subject of a political debate. It felt urgent to take control of the Chinese and mixed-blood youth by creating colleges that would be devoted to them.

At the same time, awakened by the seriousness of the political situation in China and by the increase of anti-Asiatic sentiment in Peru, the Sino-Peruvian community realized that its future was at stake. The schools were founded while the most politicized of the Chinese and Tusan (Tusheng) 1 intellectuals tried to impose their ideas on education and on the future of the society in general. Two new magazines 2 animated the debate: Oriental and New Chung Wa, and three schools, El Centro de Cultura, the Chung Wha, called the Colegio Chino of the Beneficencia and the San Min, known as the Progreso, an emanation of the Guomindang, were at the centre of the controversy which would affect the future of the Chinese community in Peru.


自 1886 年開始,秘魯華人社群致力於設立一個教育機構,以便華人孩子學習漢語並在華人文化傳統中成長。華人慈善機構 (華人慈善聯合會) 和天主教堂等機構的努力並不成功。回中國或跟私人家教學習在很長時間內是維持華人認同和使用華語的唯一途徑。 20 世紀 20 年代,華人社群開始逐漸富裕起來,同時政治意識也有所加強。教育成為社會生活的核心問題並引起極大爭議。為華人和混血青年創辦學院成為當務之急。與此同時,中國嚴峻的政治環境和秘魯人反亞裔的心態讓秘魯的華人社團意識到自己的前途吉凶未蔔。學校成立後,最政治化的華人和土生文人都試圖以他們的理念影響教育和社會的未來走向。兩個新的雜誌 (《東方月報》和《新中華》) 和三所學校 (中華學校, 三民學校, 雙十學校) 就處於矛盾的中心,也影響了之後的秘魯華人社群。

Keywords: Chinese education; Chinese community of Peru; Guomindang; Chinese nationalism; Chinese schools; Chinese –Peruvian magazines; Chung Wha school; San Min School; Diez de Octubre high school; Juan XXIII high school

關鍵字: 華文教育; 秘魯華人社群; 國民黨; 華文學校; 秘魯華文雜誌; 中華學校; 三民學校; 雙十學校


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About the article

Isabelle Lausent-Herrera

Dr. Isabelle Lausent-Herrera is a researcher at the French National Research Center (CNRS-CREDA) and lectured on Asiatic immigration in the Americas at the Latin American Institute (IHEAL)-University of Paris III. She obtained her doctorate in geography from the University of Paris VII and graduate also in anthropology and Chinese. Her research in the past 20 years has concerned mainly Chinese immigration to Peru since the republican period up to recent immigration.

She began working in Peru in 1975. Her research initially focused on the transformations that indigenous communities underwent in their process of market integration. Her first research on Chinese immigration in Peru dealt with the freed indenture Chinese workers that rapidly established in Andean peasant communities. She became interested in other Chinese communities that played an important role as pioneers in the Peruvian Amazon region. She has widely published on different aspects of community live stressing the ambiguities of “assimilation” through “mestizaje”: religious syncretism, evangelist movements among Peruvian Chinese community, Chinese temples and societies, Chinese graves in Peru, economic ties between China and Peru, Chinatown in Peru and Cuba, concubines and spouses of Chinese immigrants, Tusan’s (Tusheng’s) identity, Chinese Schools. Ongoing research is focused on new Chinese immigration flows and Chinese cultural diplomacy.

樂山博士是法國國家研究中心的學者,同時也在巴黎第三大學美國亞洲移民和拉丁裔美國人研究院任教。她獲得巴黎第四大學地理學博士學位,也同時從人類學和漢語專業畢業。過去 20 年裡,她主要研究自共和時代開始至今的秘魯中國移民。她從 1975 年開始在秘魯工作。最初的研究關注土生土長的社群在市場化過程中的轉變。她首個有關秘魯中國移民的研究探討被釋放的合同制中國勞工迅速建立起安第斯山農民社群的問題。她也關注在秘魯亞馬遜區域起先鋒作用的其他中國移民問題。她的文章涉及移民社會的不同角度問題, 包括通過混血通化問題、宗教混合主義、秘魯華人社群的福音運動、中國寺廟和社會,秘魯的中國墳墓,中國和秘魯的經濟聯繫,秘魯和古巴的唐人街,中國移民的配偶和小妾,土生華人的身份,中文學校等。未來的研究關注新中國移民潮和中國文化外交。

Published Online: 2015-09-09

Published in Print: 2015-09-01

Citation Information: Global Chinese, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 311–337, ISSN (Online) 2199-4382, ISSN (Print) 2199-4374, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/glochi-2015-1014.

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