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世界華語區域詞語差異之成因及其相應策應之芻議

On the cause of lexical differences and variations among chinese communities worldwide and responses to them

汤 志祥
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  • 香港中文大学教育学院普通话教育及研究中心, 香港中文大学, 陈国本楼 607B, 沙田, 香港 新界, 中国
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Published Online: 2018-03-28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/glochi-2018-0008

摘要

2010 年 5 月《全球華語詞典》 及 2015 年 4 月《全球華語大詞典》的相繼續出版,充分證明了當今世界性華語大家庭的真實存在。這兩本詞典的問世全面展示出當今全球華語詞彙集的總體共時面貌,同時也明白無誤顯示出各區域華語之間的詞語異同。

世界華語各大區域詞語的差異主要以中國大陸、中国台灣、中国港澳、新馬四大塊地域為其代表。其中中國大陸為當今華語的母體和主體,而中国台灣、中国港澳、新馬等地均為子體和異體。

世界華語區域詞語的差異成因主要源於下列三個方面:一是各區域存在著反映各自不同的社會制度、政經面貌、歷史地理、人文習俗,以及當地特有的事物和物產等;二是某些地區有著數目和地位不同的外國語言、漢語方言和方言文化的影響;三是某些地區的部分華語詞語的詞義和詞用產生了在地性變異或變化。

目前相應的對策應該是:(1)詳盡地細緻地描寫並記錄全球華語大家庭的的詞彙概貌及其異同;(2)深入地分析並剖析它們之間的相同、相似、相異的程度和成因;(3)通過交流、教學和研討,增進各區域相互之間的理解與溝通;(4)逐步通過專家篩選和社會使用(約定俗成),推動相互的流通、吸收、協調和融合,逐步達成最大程度的共同化和一體化。

Abstract

The publication of The Global Chinese Dictionary (Beijing, May 2010) and The Comprehensive Global Chinese Dictionary (Beijing, April 2015) has demonstrated the differences in words used by the Chinese language communities across the globe.

The article discusses three main causes of the differences: firstly, different regional social, political and economic features, including history, geography, cultural customs, led to different words and expressions; secondly, there are influences from foreign languages and Chinese dialects as well as cultural influences in different areas; thirdly, semantic variations and changes have occurred over time. The article argues that it is important to describe and record the similarities and differences among all Chinese language communities in detail; to analyze the similarities and differences systematically; to promote understanding through communication, education and research; and to develop consensus through language management and social practice.

關鍵詞: 華語; 區域詞語; 詞語差異; 相應策應; 詞彙學

Keywords: Global Chinese; regional words; lexical difference and variation; responses; lexicology

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About the article

Published Online: 2018-03-28

Published in Print: 2018-03-26


Citation Information: Global Chinese, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 167–183, ISSN (Online) 2199-4382, ISSN (Print) 2199-4374, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/glochi-2018-0008.

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