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兩岸語詞邏輯思維差異之比較研究

A comparative study of lexical differences and the reasoning behind them between Taiwan and Mainland China

盧 國屏
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  • 淡江大學中文系教授, 政治大學文學博士, 台灣宜蘭縣宜蘭市宜興路三段 93 巷 6 號, 886-0973-382-178
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Published Online: 2018-03-28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/glochi-2018-0009

摘要

海峽兩岸因為地理分隔、生活習慣差異、社會制度差異等各項因素,導致語詞也產生了諸多差異用法,或者同實異詞,如:「留職停薪」與「保職停薪」、或者異實同詞,如:「可愛」在大陸會帶有幼稚的意思;在台灣,可愛是非常普遍,跨年齡、跨性別的正面稱讚。語詞差異對於相同母語但地理分隔的地區而言,其實是一種普通也正常的現象,英語地區如此,前述的兩岸差異產生不同語詞,自然也是。

不過這些地理與社會差異,直接導致的應該是不同地區的人對於事物判斷的邏輯思維差異,然後才造成了語詞創建及應用之差異。例如醫療上的「靜脈注射」,大陸叫「輸液」,其命名邏輯思維是著眼於藥液透過較長管線「輸送」至人體的特性;台灣叫「點滴」,則是著眼於藥液進入管線時之「藥量可控制性」。明顯的兩岸對於這種注射方式感興趣的特徵處、特殊性之邏輯觀點不同。又如電腦使用的「鼠標」,台灣叫「滑鼠」,「鼠」當然來自英語的「mouse」,「標」之邏輯觀點著眼於「可標準定位性」、「滑」則看見了鼠標可以在屏幕上的「任意移動性」。再如「打橫炮」,台灣叫「攪局」,明顯的已是語詞在最初取材時的觀點與邏輯不同,一取自鞭炮、一取自棋局,語詞自然也就呈現完全差異。

兩岸語詞差異的材料收集與類型研究已經很多,本文則特別著重在兩岸各種差異所導致的社會邏輯與觀點差異之溯源比較,因為語詞差異固然可以因為交流而互相了解並進行溝通,但是長期分治之後導致人們的邏輯觀點差異,甚或價值觀的不同,才可能是交流的真正障礙所在。掌握這些差異之所自來,了解互相邏輯觀點之不同,促進融合過程之順暢,便是本文研究之目的。

Abstract

The geographical separation by the Taiwan Strait between Taiwan and mainland China and the differences in lifestyle and social system have resulted in differences in the usage of terms. For example, a term such as ‘’Leave without pay’’ (留職停薪、保職停薪) can have different vocabularies but the same meaning. In the contrary, a term can also have different meanings but constructed with the same lexical item vocabulary, like ‘’cute’’ (可愛) which means ’’foolish’’ in mainland but ‘’lovely’’, and also as a complement between age groups or genders in Taiwan. The geographical and social differences may also have led to differences in thinking, which in turn resulted in the differences in vocabulary usage and creations of new items. For example, the medical term “intravenous injection”(靜脈注射), in mainland is “infusion” (輸液) where the thinking focuses on the solution that is passed into the human body through a tube; Taiwan uses “drip”(點滴), which focus on the control for the amount of liquid being given. Another example is the computer “mouse”, Taiwan calls it ‘slide mouse’ (滑鼠) while mainland calls it ‘mouse standard indicator’ (鼠標), the difference in thinking being between ‘the mobility of the mouse on the screen” and ‘’standard positioning’’. This article focuses on the differences in thinking and viewpoints behind the different vocabularies in mainland China and Taiwan. Although in most case we are able to understand each other, the difference in thinking and the perspective in values can be a real communication barrier between the two places after a long political separation. The purpose of this paper is to understand the reasoning behind these differences.

關鍵詞: 語詞; 思維; 邏輯; 社會; 融合

Keywords: vocabulary; thinking; reasoning; society; fusion

Bibliography(參考文獻)

  • Xu jialu (許嘉璐). 2012. 中華語文知識庫 (Chinese Language knowledge Database) Beijing (北京) www.zhonghuayuwen.org

  • Xu Lei (許蕾). 2014. 海峽兩岸日常生活詞語差異及其原因研究 (A study of everyday lexical differences and their causes on both sides of the Taiwan Strait.) Beijing (北京): China International Broadcasting Press (中國國際廣播出版社).Google Scholar

  • Diao Yanbin (刁晏斌). 2015. 海峽兩岸及港澳地區現代漢語差異與融合研究 (Studies of the Difference and Fusion in Chinese on Both Sides of The Taiwan Strait, and in Hong Kong and Macao). pp. 431–434. Beijing: The Commercial Press (商務印書館).Google Scholar

About the article

主要研究方向: 漢字、漢語音、漢語語義、文化語言學、社會語言學、國際漢語教學


Published Online: 2018-03-28

Published in Print: 2018-03-26


Citation Information: Global Chinese, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 185–198, ISSN (Online) 2199-4382, ISSN (Print) 2199-4374, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/glochi-2018-0009.

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