Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Gestalt Theory

An International Multidisciplinary Journal

3 Issues per year

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2519-5808
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Is Hatred a Major Factor Determining the Contemporary Social Imaginary? / Ist der Hass ein bestimmender Faktor des gegenwärtigen sozialen Imaginären?

Andrzej Leder
Published Online: 2017-12-21 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/gth-2017-0021

Summary

In my paper, I analyze hate as one of the important factors that influence and structuralize the symbolic sphere. In the first step, I define the notion of “symbolic sphere”. Then, I analyze hate from the phenomenological and psychoanalytical points of view. My next step is a historical digression, concerning the place of hate in the social order. Next, I describe some important phenomena of the contemporary societies conditioned by the influence of hatred. Finally, I investigate which notions of the social theory are adequate to describe this kind of phenomena. Hate has been most frequently apprehended as a sudden eruption of bare violence. It was supposed to transform the symbolic sphere through sharp, directly aggressive, and often unexpected actions. Nevertheless, in societies wherein the symbolic legitimization of the political and social order was established as the consequence of the Second World War, a deep change in the attitude toward the bare and direct expression of violence took place. Acts of hate in the public sphere became morally delegitimized and symbolically repressed. We should ask then: if the bare violence and the hate determining this violence disappeared from the sphere of social praxis, although they still shape the social imaginary, how are they really founded? Thus, to answer these questions, I will have to ask not about the direct impact of hatred, but about its hidden influence.

Keywords : Giorgio Agamben; Walter Benjamin; Marcel Gauchet; hatred; Martin Heidegger; Jean-Paul Sartre; social imaginaries; symbolic sphere; Slavoj Žižek

References

  • Arendt, H. (1979.). The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.Google Scholar

  • Benjamin, W. (1986). Critique of violence. (E. Jephcott, Trans.). In P. Demetz (Ed.), Reflections: Essays, Aphorisms, Autobiographical Writings (277-300). New York: Schocken Books.Google Scholar

  • Duhaime’s Law Dictionary. Hate Crime definition: The public incitation of hatred against an identifiable group. Retrieved from http://www.duhaime.org/LegalDictionary/H/HateCrime.aspx [2017, May 25]. Fromm, E. (1973). The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. New York: Open Road Integrated. Retrieved from https://www.scribd.com/read/171090708/The-Anatomy-of-Human-Destructiveness [2017, May 25].Google Scholar

  • Gauchet, M. (2002). Pacification démocratique, désertion civique. In La democratie contre elle-meme (176-198). Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar

  • Heidegger, M. (1929). What is Metaphysics?. The basic text of Heidegger’s inaugural lecture at the University of Freiburg in 1929. Transl. Stephen Hicks. Retrieved from http://www.stephenhicks.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/heideggerm-what-is-metaphysics.pdf [2017, Mai 28].Google Scholar

  • Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and Time. (J. Macquarrie & E. Robinson, Trans.). San Francisco: Harper.Google Scholar

  • Sartre, J.-P. (1939). Esquisse d’une theorie des emotions. Paris: Hermann.Google Scholar

  • Taylor, C. (2002). Modern Social Imaginaries. Public Culture 14 (1): 91-124.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Žižek, S. (1997). The Plague of Fantasies. London: Verso.Google Scholar

  • Žižek, S. (2001). Przekleństwo fantazji. (A. Chmielewski, Trans.). Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego.Google Scholar

  • Freud, S. (1909). Notes upon a case of obsessional neurosis. (I. Smith, Trans.). In A. Richards (Ed.), The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 10). London: Vintage.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2017-12-21

Published in Print: 2017-11-27


Citation Information: Gestalt Theory, Volume 39, Issue 2-3, Pages 303–312, ISSN (Online) 2519-5808, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/gth-2017-0021.

Export Citation

© 2017. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in