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Heterocyclic Communications


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.700

CiteScore 2017: 0.66

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.199
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.263

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Online
ISSN
2191-0197
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Volume 17, Issue 5-6

Issues

A comparison of green chemistry metrics for two methods of bromination and nitration of bis-pyrazolo[3,4-b;4′,3′-e]pyridines

Magdalena Marcinkowska
  • Organic Chemistry Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce, Poland
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/ Danuta Rasała
  • Organic Chemistry Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce, Poland
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/ Agnieszka Puchała
  • Organic Chemistry Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce, Poland
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/ Agnieszka Gałuszka
  • Geochemistry and the Environment Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce, Poland
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Abstract

Green chemistry metrics (E-factor, atom economy, reaction mass efficiency) and the EcoScale have been compared for conventional heating and microwave assisted bromination and nitration of bis-pyrazolo[3,4-b;4′,3′-e]pyridines. The major advantages in microwave-assisted reactions in relation to traditional evaluation of the process have encompassed higher yields, shorter reaction time and higher selectivity. The microwave-assisted reactions have shown better green chemistry parameters and EcoScale ranks than those in conventionally heated reactions. Mass reaction efficiency values have been critical for considering ‘green’ the reactions conducted under traditional conditions. Additional advantages of using microwaves, not considered in calculated parameters, include easier purification of the reaction mixture and isolation of the product.

Keywords: bis-pyrazolo[3,4-b;4′,3′-e]pyridines; EcoScale; green chemistry metrics; microwave-assisted electrophilic substitution

About the article

Corresponding author


Received: 2011-08-30

Accepted: 2011-10-18

Published in Print: 2011-12-01


Citation Information: Heterocyclic Communications, Volume 17, Issue 5-6, Pages 191–196, ISSN (Online) 2191-0197, ISSN (Print) 0793-0283, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HC.2011.038.

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[1]
Andrew P. Dicks, Andrei Hent, and Katherine J. Koroluk
Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews, 2018, Volume 11, Number 1, Page 29

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