Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives
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The stiffness modulus in Norway spruce as a function of year ring
The elastic properties of Norway spruce were studied by means of ultrasound. Samples were from stems that were grown either at a medium- or a high-fertility site in Finland. The stiffness modulus was determined in the longitudinal, radial, and tangential directions as a function of the distance from the pith using 1-mm-thick samples. Tangentially cut samples contained only earlywood, while radially and longitudinally cut samples contained both earlywood and latewood. The stiffness modulus in the longitudinal direction for Norway spruce grown at a medium-fertility site increased with distance from the pith from 6±1 to 8.5±1 GPa. This parameter increased as the mean microfibril angle decreased. In the radial and tangential directions, the stiffness modulus was nearly constant, at 1±0.15 and 0.35±0.04 GPa, respectively. The longitudinal stiffness modulus of fast-growing clonal trees, which contained a large share of juvenile wood and were growing on a fertile site, was ca. 30% smaller (4±1 GPa near the pith and 6±1 GPa at the age of 12 years) than that of trees on a medium-fertility site. No difference was found in the radial and tangential stiffness modulus between stems grown at the two sites.
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