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International Journal of the Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Technology of Wood

Editor-in-Chief: Faix, Oskar

Editorial Board Member: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Salmen, Lennart / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Berry, Richard / Burgert, Ingo / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gellerstedt, Göran / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Heitner, Cyril / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Kleen, Marjatta / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Pizzi, Antonio / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Tamminen, Tarja / Viikari, Liisa / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

IMPACT FACTOR increased in 2015: 1.711
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.794
Rank 3 out of 21 in category Materials Science, Paper & Wood and 14 out of 66 in Forestry in the 2015 Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Report/Science Edition

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.817
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.954
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 1.427

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Prediction of long-term leaching potential of preservative-treated wood by diffusion modeling

Levi Waldron1 / Paul A. Cooper2 / Tony Y. Ung3




Corresponding author. Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3B3, Canada

Citation Information: Holzforschung. Volume 59, Issue 5, Pages 581–588, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: 10.1515/HF.2005.095, September 2005

Publication History

January 19, 2005
May 12, 2005


An approach to modeling leaching and leaching impacts of preservative components from treated wood is presented based on three simple laboratory determinations: the amount of preservative component available for leaching (Le), equilibrium dissociation of preservative into free water in wood (Di) and diffusion coefficients for component leaching in different wood directions (D). In this study, the following inorganic wood preservative systems were investigated: chromated copper arsenate (CCA), the copper component of copper azole (CA) and alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), and boron in disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT). Aggressive leaching of finely ground wood showed that amounts of preservative compounds available for leaching were highest for borates, followed by copper in copper amine systems and arsenic in CCA, copper in CCA and chromium in CCA. The equilibrium dissociation or solubility of components in free water in the wood was much higher for borates and copper amine, followed by copper and arsenic in CCA and chromium in CCA. Use of the applicable diffusion coefficient (D) and Di or Le values in a diffusion model allows the prediction of total amount leached and emission or flux rate at different times of exposure for products with different dimensions and geometries. The approach was tested and generally validated through application of the model to results of laboratory water spray leaching of full-size lumber samples. The approach explains the rapid leaching of boron compounds (large diffusion coefficient and high initial dissociated concentration) compared to other preservative components and predicts that ACQ will have higher initial leaching rates compared to CCA and CA, but the latter preservatives will continue to leach copper at a measurable rate for a much longer time. The practical implications and limitations of the approach are discussed.

Keywords: alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ); borate; chromated copper arsenate (CCA); copper azole; diffusion; dissociation; leaching; risk.

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