Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Rio, Jose C. / Laine, Christiane / Potthast, Antje / Takano, Toshiyuki / Theliander, Hans


International Journal of the Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Technology of Wood

Editor-in-Chief: Faix, Oskar

Editorial Board Member: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Salmen, Lennart / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Burgert, Ingo / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Tamminen, Tarja / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

12 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR increased in 2015: 1.711
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.794
Rank 3 out of 21 in category Materials Science, Paper & Wood and 14 out of 66 in Forestry in the 2015 Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Report/Science Edition

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.817
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.954
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 1.427

See all formats and pricing
Volume 60, Issue 3 (May 2006)


Fracture cleavage analysis of PVAc latex adhesives: Influence of phenolic additives

Francisco López-Suevos
  • Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
/ Charles E. Frazier
  • Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
Published Online: 2006-05-03 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2006.050


Mode I fracture cleavage testing was conducted on wood bonded with poly(vinyl acetate-co-NMA) latex adhesive containing two types/degrees of cross-linking: (1) cross-linking through AlCl3 catalysis of N-methylolacrylamide (NMA) comonomer; and (2) additional cross-linking using a phenol-formaldehyde resol additive, in addition to AlCl3 catalysis. The formulation lacking the phenolic additive performed well under dry conditions; but it completely failed during testing as a result of accelerated weathering. In contrast, fortification with the phenolic additive provided durability against accelerated weathering. In an effort to understand the effects of accelerated weathering, parallel-plate dynamic mechanical analysis was applied to freestanding neat adhesive films and to wood-bonded films (composites). Accelerated weathering dramatically altered the viscoelastic response of films and composites that lacked the phenolic additive; weathering caused a second, broad and reversible relaxation near 100°C, which might be because of softening of the poly(vinyl alcohol) interfacial agent used during emulsion polymerization. In contrast, samples formulated with the phenolic additive only displayed the typical base-polymer glass transition. Correlation of the fracture testing and the rheological analysis suggests that the phenolic additive promotes adhesive durability by cross-linking the interparticle boundaries, where poly(vinyl alcohol) is believed to reside.

Keywords: DMA; dynamic mechanical analysis; fracture test; latex adhesives; parallel-plate rheology; wood/adhesive interactions


About the article

Corresponding author. Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, Virginia Tech, 230 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0323, USA Fax: +1-540-231-8176

Received: October 26, 2005

Accepted: January 25, 2006

Published Online: 2006-05-03

Published in Print: 2006-05-01

Citation Information: Holzforschung, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2006.050. Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Alireza Kaboorani, Bernard Riedl, and Pierre Blanchet
Journal of Nanomaterials, 2013, Volume 2013, Page 1
Frank Stoeckel, Johannes Konnerth, and Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 2013, Volume 45, Page 32
Alireza Kaboorani and Bernard Riedl
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2012, Volume 18, Number 3, Page 1076
Alireza Kaboorani and Bernard Riedl
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2011, Volume 42, Number 8, Page 1031
Alireza Kaboorani and Bernard Riedl
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 2011, Volume 31, Number 7, Page 605
Gun Nakanishi, Tadashi Okamoto, and Masahiro Takatani
The Journal of Adhesion, 2008, Volume 84, Number 7, Page 638
Francisco López-Suevos and Charles E. Frazier
Holzforschung, 2006, Volume 60, Number 5

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in