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Rio, Jose C. / Laine, Christiane / Potthast, Antje / Takano, Toshiyuki / Theliander, Hans

Holzforschung

International Journal of the Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Technology of Wood

Editor-in-Chief: Faix, Oskar

Editorial Board Member: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Salmen, Lennart / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Burgert, Ingo / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Tamminen, Tarja / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

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Online
ISSN
1437-434X
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Volume 60, Issue 3 (May 2006)

Issues

Fracture cleavage analysis of PVAc latex adhesives: Influence of phenolic additives

Francisco López-Suevos
  • Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
/ Charles E. Frazier
  • Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
Published Online: 2006-05-03 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2006.050

Abstract

Mode I fracture cleavage testing was conducted on wood bonded with poly(vinyl acetate-co-NMA) latex adhesive containing two types/degrees of cross-linking: (1) cross-linking through AlCl3 catalysis of N-methylolacrylamide (NMA) comonomer; and (2) additional cross-linking using a phenol-formaldehyde resol additive, in addition to AlCl3 catalysis. The formulation lacking the phenolic additive performed well under dry conditions; but it completely failed during testing as a result of accelerated weathering. In contrast, fortification with the phenolic additive provided durability against accelerated weathering. In an effort to understand the effects of accelerated weathering, parallel-plate dynamic mechanical analysis was applied to freestanding neat adhesive films and to wood-bonded films (composites). Accelerated weathering dramatically altered the viscoelastic response of films and composites that lacked the phenolic additive; weathering caused a second, broad and reversible relaxation near 100°C, which might be because of softening of the poly(vinyl alcohol) interfacial agent used during emulsion polymerization. In contrast, samples formulated with the phenolic additive only displayed the typical base-polymer glass transition. Correlation of the fracture testing and the rheological analysis suggests that the phenolic additive promotes adhesive durability by cross-linking the interparticle boundaries, where poly(vinyl alcohol) is believed to reside.

Keywords: DMA; dynamic mechanical analysis; fracture test; latex adhesives; parallel-plate rheology; wood/adhesive interactions

References

About the article

Corresponding author. Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, Virginia Tech, 230 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0323, USA Fax: +1-540-231-8176


Received: October 26, 2005

Accepted: January 25, 2006

Published Online: 2006-05-03

Published in Print: 2006-05-01


Citation Information: Holzforschung, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2006.050. Export Citation

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