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International Journal of the Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Technology of Wood

Editor-in-Chief: Faix, Oskar

Editorial Board Member: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Salmen, Lennart / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Burgert, Ingo / Rio, Jose C. / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Laine, Christiane / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Potthast, Antje / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Takano, Toshiyuki / Tamminen, Tarja / Theliander, Hans / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

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Volume 61, Issue 6 (Nov 2007)


Time/temperature equivalence in the dry wood creep response

Nanjian Sun
  • 1Wood Science and Forest Products, Wood-Based Composites Center, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Charles E. Frazier
  • 2Wood Science and Forest Products, Wood-Based Composites Center, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2007-11-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2007.114


Rheology of wood molecular and supramolecular organization has mostly been conducted with dynamic methods, and the application of time/temperature equivalence typically requires plasticizers to observe segmental relaxation. Dry wood rheology offers the experimental advantage of easy moisture control, but only weak secondary relaxations are observed with dynamic methods. Static methods allow for the longer relaxation times in glassy polymers, and these relaxations are strongly stimulated by lower less damaging temperatures. This study describes the application of creep mode time/temperature equivalence to dry yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.). It was found that time/temperature equivalence was valid from 10–170°C, but only for specimens that received a prior 30-min thermal treatment (with minor desiccation) in the range of 100–170°C. The two woods exhibited clear differences in the temperature dependence of the dry wood creep relaxation, and in the sensitivity to free volume manipulation. These findings are believed to reflect polymer structural differences in hardwoods and softwoods indicating that creep mode time/temperature studies of dry wood may be useful for the analysis of xylem polymer behavior.

Keywords: creep; time/temperature equivalence; wood rheology

About the article

Corresponding author. Wood Science and Forest Products, Wood-Based Composites Center, 230 Cheatham Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0323, USA Fax: +1-540-231-8176,

Received: 2006-08-06

Accepted: 2007-07-12

Published Online: 2007-11-01

Published in Print: 2007-11-01

Citation Information: Holzforschung, ISSN (Online) 1437434X, ISSN (Print) 00183830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2007.114.

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