Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details


International Journal of the Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Technology of Wood

Editor-in-Chief: Faix, Oskar

Editorial Board Member: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Salmen, Lennart / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Berry, Richard / Burgert, Ingo / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gellerstedt, Göran / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Heitner, Cyril / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Kleen, Marjatta / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Pizzi, Antonio / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Tamminen, Tarja / Viikari, Liisa / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

IMPACT FACTOR increased in 2015: 1.711
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.794
Rank 3 out of 21 in category Materials Science, Paper & Wood and 14 out of 66 in Forestry in the 2015 Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Report/Science Edition

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.817
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.954
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 1.427

249,00 € / $374.00 / £187.00*

See all formats and pricing


Select Volume and Issue


30,00 € / $42.00 / £23.00

Get Access to Full Text

Hierarchical modelling of microstructural effects on mechanical properties of wood. A review COST Action E35 2004–2008: Wood machining – micromechanics and fracture

Karin Hofstetter1 / E. Kristofer Gamstedt2

1Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria

2Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden

Corresponding author. Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Karlsplatz 13/202, 1040 Vienna, Austria

Citation Information: Holzforschung. Volume 63, Issue 2, Pages 130–138, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: 10.1515/HF.2009.018, December 2008

Publication History

Published Online:


Wood exhibits a hierarchical architecture. Its macroscopic properties are determined by microstructural features at different scales of observation. Recent developments of experimental micro-characterisation techniques have delivered further insight into the appearance and the behaviour of wood at smaller length scales. The improved knowledge and the availability of increasingly powerful micromechanical modelling techniques and homogenisation methods have stimulated rather comprehensive research on multiscale modelling of wood. Linking microstructural properties to macroscopic characteristics is expected to improve the knowledge of the mechanical behaviour of wood and to serve as the basis for the development of innovative wood-based products and for biomimetic material design. Moreover, understanding fundamental aspects of wood machining requires multiscale approaches which can take into account the heterogeneity, anisotropy and hierarchies of wood and wood composites. In this review, recent developments in the field of hierarchical modelling of the hygroelastic behaviour of wood are discussed, and a short outline of the theoretical background is given. Much focus is placed on composite micromechanical models for the wood cell wall and on multiscale models for wood resting upon hierarchical finite element models and on the application of continuum micromechanics, respectively. These models generally lead to the specification of equivalent homogeneous continua with effective material properties. Finally, current deficiencies and limitations of hierarchical models are sketched and possible future research directions are specified.

Keywords: composite micromechanics; continuum micromechanics; finite element method; hierarchical modelling; hygroelastic behaviour; multiscale analysis

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

J. Sjölund, A. Karakoç, and J. Freund
International Journal of Solids and Structures, 2015, Volume 62, Page 207
Stefania Fortino, Petr Hradil, Lauri I. Salminen, and Federica De Magistris
Journal of Materials Science, 2015, Volume 50, Number 1, Page 482
Thomas Joffre, R. Cristian Neagu, Stig L. Bardage, and E. Kristofer Gamstedt
Journal of Structural Biology, 2014, Volume 185, Number 1, Page 89
Edwin Nagy, Eric N. Landis, and William G. Davids
Holzforschung, 2010, Volume 64, Number 4

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.