## Abstract

Wood exhibits a hierarchical architecture. Its macroscopic properties are determined by microstructural features at different scales of observation. Recent developments of experimental micro-characterisation techniques have delivered further insight into the appearance and the behaviour of wood at smaller length scales. The improved knowledge and the availability of increasingly powerful micromechanical modelling techniques and homogenisation methods have stimulated rather comprehensive research on multiscale modelling of wood. Linking microstructural properties to macroscopic characteristics is expected to improve the knowledge of the mechanical behaviour of wood and to serve as the basis for the development of innovative wood-based products and for biomimetic material design. Moreover, understanding fundamental aspects of wood machining requires multiscale approaches which can take into account the heterogeneity, anisotropy and hierarchies of wood and wood composites. In this review, recent developments in the field of hierarchical modelling of the hygroelastic behaviour of wood are discussed, and a short outline of the theoretical background is given. Much focus is placed on composite micromechanical models for the wood cell wall and on multiscale models for wood resting upon hierarchical finite element models and on the application of continuum micromechanics, respectively. These models generally lead to the specification of equivalent homogeneous continua with effective material properties. Finally, current deficiencies and limitations of hierarchical models are sketched and possible future research directions are specified.

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