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Rio, Jose C. / Laine, Christiane / Potthast, Antje / Takano, Toshiyuki / Theliander, Hans


International Journal of the Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Technology of Wood

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Volume 63, Issue 3 (May 2009)


Experimental and numerical determination of the hygroscopic warping of cross-laminated solid wood panels

Thomas Gereke
  • ETH Zurich, Institute for Building Materials (Wood Physics), Zurich, Switzerland
/ Per Johan Gustafsson
  • Lund University, Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund, Sweden
/ Kent Persson
  • Lund University, Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund, Sweden
/ Peter Niemz
  • ETH Zurich, Institute for Building Materials (Wood Physics), Zurich, Switzerland
Published Online: 2009-02-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2009.061


The moisture-induced warping of three-layered cross-laminated solid wood panels made of Norway spruce was studied. The panels were exposed to different climate conditions at 65% and 100% relative humidity at the two panel faces. The results showed increasing cup deformation with an increasing relative thickness of the outer layers. The annual growth ring orientation was found to have a significant influence on the magnitude of the cup deformation. Measurements and numerical simulations of the moisture distribution within the panel were made in order to provide data for numerical simulations of the warping. A distinctive moisture profile with a conspicuous influence of the adhesive bond lines was found. The coefficient of diffusion of the adhesive bond lines was determined from the measurements and simulations. The mechanical material model used for the warping simulations takes into account elastic strain, moisture-induced swelling, and mechano-sorptive strain. The simulations showed good agreement with the warping test results. The most important material parameters for the cup deformation, which were identified in a parametric study of a panel with vertically oriented annual rings, are the moduli of elasticity and the swelling coefficients in the longitudinal and radial direction. Furthermore, the mechano-sorptive coefficient in radial direction was found to have a significant influence on warp.

Keywords: adhesive joint; cross-lamination; cup; moisture; panel; spruce (Picea abies); warp

About the article

Corresponding author. ETH Zurich, Institute for Building Materials (Wood Physics), Schafmattstrasse 6, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland

Received: 2008-08-29

Accepted: 2009-01-12

Published Online: 2009-02-18

Published Online: 2009-02-18

Published in Print: 2009-05-01

Citation Information: Holzforschung, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2009.061. Export Citation

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