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International Journal of the Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Technology of Wood

Editor-in-Chief: Faix, Oskar

Editorial Board Member: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Salmen, Lennart / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Berry, Richard / Burgert, Ingo / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gellerstedt, Göran / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Heitner, Cyril / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Kleen, Marjatta / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Pizzi, Antonio / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Tamminen, Tarja / Viikari, Liisa / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

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Extractives in bark of different conifer species growing in Pakistan

Stefan Willför1 / Mumtaz Ali2 / Maarit Karonen3 / Markku Reunanen1 / Mohammad Arfan2 / Reija Harlamow1

1Åbo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Laboratory of Wood and Paper Chemistry, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland

2Phytopharmaceutical and Nutraceutical Research Labs, Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan

3Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Corresponding author. Laboratory of Wood and Paper Chemistry, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500, Turku, Finland Phone: +358-2-215-4729 Fax: +358-2-215-4868

Citation Information: Holzforschung. Volume 63, Issue 5, Pages 551–558, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: 10.1515/HF.2009.095, June 2009

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The amount and composition of lipophilic and hydrophilic extractives, including proanthocyanidins, has been analysed as a first screening in the bark of six Pakistani coniferous tree species, namely Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburghii, Pinus gerardiana, Abies pindrow, Taxus fuana and Cedrus deodara. The predominant lipophilic extractives were common fatty and resin acids, fatty alcohols and sterols. In all bark samples, short-chain fatty acids were more abundant than long-chain fatty acids. Generally, the amount of free fatty acids was also larger than the amount of triglycerides. Oleic acid was the most common fatty acid, except in C. deodara, where lignoceric acid dominated. The largest amounts of fatty acids and fatty alcohols were found in P. wallichiana and P. gerardiana. P. gerardiana contained an exceptionally large amount of resin acids, approximately 3% of the bark weight, compared to the other species. The amount of free sterols was approximately at the same level or larger than the amount of steryl esters in most samples. In addition to proanthocyanidins, different known lignans, stilbenes, ferulates and flavonoids were generally predominant amongst the hydrophilic extractives. Resveratrol glycoside was abundant in P. wallichiana, while C. deodara and P. gerardiana contained large amounts of lignans and lignan derivatives. All bark extracts contained large amounts of proanthocyanidin-related catechin and its derivatives. Furthermore, C. deodara and P. roxburghii contained quite large amounts of taxifolin. In particular, P. wallichiana and A. pindrow are potential rich sources of proanthocyanidins, representing approximately 16% and 5% of the bark weight, respectively.

Keywords: bark; extractives; lignans; proanthocyanidins; stilbenes; tannins

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