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Wood Research and Technology

Holzforschung

Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

Editor-in-Chief: Salmén, Lennart

Editorial Board: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Burgert, Ingo / Rio, Jose C. / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Laine, Christiane / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Potthast, Antje / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Takano, Toshiyuki / Tamminen, Tarja / Theliander, Hans / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 2.579

CiteScore 2018: 2.43

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.829
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.082

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1437-434X
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Volume 64, Issue 2

Issues

Towards improved understanding of PEG-impregnated waterlogged archaeological wood: A model study on recent oak

Ingela Bjurhager
  • Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Division of Biocomposites, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Jonas Ljungdahl
  • Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Division of Biocomposites, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Lennart Wallström / E. Kristofer Gamstedt
  • Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Division of Biocomposites, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Lars A. Berglund
  • Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Division of Biocomposites, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2010-01-15 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf.2010.024

Abstract

To prevent deformation and cracking of waterlogged archaeological wood, polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a bulk impregnation agent is commonly applied. PEG maintains the wood in a swollen state during drying. However, swelling of wood can reduce its mechanical properties. In this study, the cellular structure of oak and cell wall swelling was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of transverse cross-sections, and the microfibril angle of oak fibers was determined by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Samples of recent European oak (Quercus robur L) impregnated with PEG (molecular weight of 600) were tested in axial tension and radial compression. Mechanical tests showed that axial tensile modulus and strength were only slightly affected by PEG, whereas radial compressive modulus and yield strength were reduced by up to 50%. This behavior can be explained by the microstructure and deformation mechanisms of the material. Microfibril angles in tensile test samples were close to zero. This implies tensile loading of cellulose microfibrils within the fiber cell walls without almost any shear in the adjacent amorphous matrix. These results are important because they can help separate the impact of PEG on mechanical properties from that of chemical degradation in archaeological artifacts, which display only small to moderate biological degradation.

Keywords: axial tension; dynamic vapor sorption (DVS); European oak; impregnation; polyethylene glycol (PEG); radial compression; wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS); Young's modulus

About the article

Corresponding author. Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Division of Biocomposites, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Phone: +46-8-790-8118 Fax: +46-8-207-865


Received: 2009-05-25

Accepted: 2009-09-28

Published Online: 2010-01-15

Published Online: 2010-01-15

Published in Print: 2010-02-01


Citation Information: Holzforschung, Volume 64, Issue 2, Pages 243–250, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf.2010.024.

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