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Wood Research and Technology


Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

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Volume 66, Issue 6


Effects of systematic variation of wood adherend bending stiffness on fracture properties. Part 2. Revisiting traditional DCB analysis methods

Edoardo Nicoli
  • Engineering Science and Mechanics Department, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
  • Currently at The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48667, USA.
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ David A. Dillard / Charles E. Frazier
Published Online: 2012-02-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2011-0161


Part 1 of the paper evaluated how the orientation and stiffness of the layers in layered beams of constant cross section used in double cantilever beams (DCB) specimens influence the stiffness variation of individual adherends along their length. The behavior of bonded DCB specimens made with such materials, of which wood is a common example, are analyzed in this part 2 of the paper to determine errors associated with common data analysis methods for mode I fracture testing: simple beam theory (SBT), corrected beam theory (CBT), experimental compliance method (ECM or Berry method), and area method (AM). In particular, the first three methods are described in British Standards (BS) 7991 (1991) or the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 3433 (1999/2005), while the AM is not suggested by the mentioned standards. SBT, CBT, and ECM, although initially developed for characterizing bonds between uniform and isotropic adherends, have also been commonly applied to other materials including wood. Nevertheless, these three standardized methods may lack precision for determining the critical strain energy release rate, , when applied to bonded wood adherends, due to the elastic stiffness variability that can occur along the length of the bonded beams. The AM yields more coherent results in the developed analytical procedure, although practical issues can limit its reliability with experimental results. Another physical problem that arises with the adherend stiffness variation is the onset of a slight mode II loading component that is not anticipated, nor accounted for, in the traditional data analysis methods.

Keywords: adhesive joints; area method (AM); bonded wood; composite laminate; corrected beam theory (CBT); double cantilever beam; experimental compliance method (ECM or Berry method); grain orientation; growth ring; layered material; mode I fracture testing; simple beam theory (SBT); stiffness variability

About the article

Corresponding author. Engineering Science and Mechanics Department, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA Phone: +1-540-231-4714

Received: 2011-08-11

Accepted: 2011-12-09

Published Online: 2012-02-01

Published in Print: 2012-08-01

Citation Information: , Volume 66, Issue 6, Pages 771–779, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2011-0161.

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©2012 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston.Get Permission

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