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Wood Research and Technology


Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

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Volume 67, Issue 7


Fire resistance of wood treated with various ionic liquids (ILs)

Hisashi Miyafuji
  • Corresponding author
  • Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Hangi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Yoshiyuki Fujiwara
  • Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Hangi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-03-21 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2012-0166


Ionic liquids (ILs) have been investigated for their potential as reagents for enhancing the fire resistance of wood. The following ILs were in focus: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C2mim][PF6]). Supposedly, these ILs do not dissolve or degrade wood components to a large extent. No morphologic changes were observed in any IL-treated wood samples, but they showed an enhanced fire resistance compared with that of untreated wood. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that the ILs are penetrated into the cell walls. The wood treated with [C2mim][PF6] exhibited the highest fire resistance based on thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyzer studies: it was more resistant against flaming at approximately 350°C and the subsequent glowing at higher temperatures. This enhanced fire resistance was interpreted by dehydration in the presence of the ILs under observation. In general, ILs are promising reagents for improving the thermal properties of wood.

Keywords: [C2mim][BF4]; [C2mim][Br]; 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C2mim][PF6]); fire resistance; fire retardance; ionic liquid (IL); SEM-EDXA; TG-DTA; wood


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About the article

Corresponding author: Hisashi Miyafuji, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Hangi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan, e-mail:

Received: 2012-10-11

Accepted: 2013-02-25

Published Online: 2013-03-21

Published in Print: 2013-10-01

Citation Information: Holzforschung, Volume 67, Issue 7, Pages 787–793, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2012-0166.

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