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Wood Research and Technology


Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

Editor-in-Chief: Salmén, Lennart

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Volume 69, Issue 8


Damage evolution in wood: synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRμCT) as a complementary tool for interpreting acoustic emission (AE) behavior

Franziska Baensch
  • Corresponding author
  • ETH Zurich – Institute for Building Materials, Zürich, CH-8093, Switzerland
  • Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development – Wood Science and Technology, Eberswalde, Germany
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Michaela Zauner / Sergio J. Sanabria / Markus G.R. Sause
  • Institute for Physics, Experimental Physics II – University of Augsburg, Augsburg, D-86135, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Bernd R. Pinzer / Andreas J. Brunner
  • Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology – Faculty for Mechanical Engineering, Dübendorf, CH-8600, Switzerland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Marco Stampanoni / Peter Niemz
Published Online: 2015-02-06 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2014-0152


Tensile tests of miniature spruce wood specimens have been performed to investigate the damage evolution in wood at the microscopic scale. For this purpose, the samples were stepwise tensile loaded in the longitudinal (L) and radial (R) directions and the damage evolution was monitored in real-time by acoustic emission (AE) and synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRμCT). This combination is of outstanding benefit as SRμCT monitoring provides an insight on the crack evolution and the final fracture at microscopic scale, whereas AE permits the detection of the associated accumulation and interaction of single damage events on all length scales with high time resolution. A significant drawback of the AE testing of wood has been overcome by means of calibrating the AE amplitudes with the underlying crack length development. Thus, a setup-dependent and wood species-dependent calibration value was estimated, which associates 1 μm2 crack area generating of 0.0038 mV in the detected AE amplitude. Furthermore, for both L and R specimens, AE signals were classified into two clusters by using a frequency-based approach of unsupervised pattern recognition. The shares of AE signals of both clusters correlate with the ratio of the relative crack area of the interwall and transwall cracks gained from the fractographic analysis of SRμCT scans.

Keywords: acoustic emission (AE); damage evolution; in situ monitoring; spruce; synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRμCT); tensile test; unsupervised pattern recognition (UPR)


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About the article

Corresponding author: Franziska Baensch, ETH Zurich – Institute for Building Materials, Stefano-Franscini-Platz 3 CH-8093 Zürich, Zürich CH-8093, Switzerland, e-mail: ; and Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development – Wood Science and Technology, Eberswalde, Germany

Received: 2014-05-20

Accepted: 2014-12-04

Published Online: 2015-02-06

Published in Print: 2015-10-01

Citation Information: Holzforschung, Volume 69, Issue 8, Pages 1015–1025, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2014-0152.

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