Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …
Wood Research and Technology


Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

Editor-in-Chief: Salmén, Lennart

Editorial Board: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Burgert, Ingo / Rio, Jose C. / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Laine, Christiane / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Potthast, Antje / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Takano, Toshiyuki / Tamminen, Tarja / Theliander, Hans / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 2.079

CiteScore 2017: 1.94

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.709
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.979

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 70, Issue 5


Influence of chip presteaming conditions on kraft pulp composition and properties

Marie Bäckström / Anna Jensen / Elisabet BrännvallORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8992-3623
Published Online: 2015-09-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2015-0104


Presteaming is a well-established technique in pulp mills, which improves cooking liquor impregnation by removing air from within and between chips. The aim of the study was to investigate how conditions during steaming affect the subsequent kraft cook and properties of the obtained pulp. It was found that higher pressure and temperature during chip presteaming led to increased degradation and dissolution of hemicelluloses. Lower refinability and tensile index was obtained for pulps cooked after presteaming at high pressure and for a long time.

Keywords: alkali consumption; kraft cooking; presteaming; pulp properties; softwood; yield


  • Aurell, R. (1964) Kraft pulping of birch, Part 1: the changes in composition of the wood residue during the cooking process. Svensk Papperstid. 67:43–49.Google Scholar

  • Battista, O., Coppick, S., Howsmon, J., Morehead, F., Sisson, W. (1956) Level-off degree of polymerization – relation to polyphase structure of cellulose fibres. Ind. Eng. Chem. Technol. 48:333–335.Google Scholar

  • Borrega, M., Tolonen, L.K., Bardot, F., Testova, L., Sixta, H. (2013) Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping. Bioresource Technol. 135:665–671.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Chiang, V., Cho, H., Puumala, R., Eckert, R., Fuller, W. (1987) Alkali consumption during kraft pulping of Douglas fir, western hemlock, and red alder. Tappi J. 70:101–104.Google Scholar

  • Duschesne, I., Hult, E., Molin, U., Daniel, G., Iversen, T., Lennholm, H. (2001) The influence of hemicellulose on fibril aggregation of kraft pulp fibres as revealed by FE-SEM and CP/MAS 13C-NMR. Cellulose 8:103–111.Google Scholar

  • Evans, R., Wallis, A. (1989) Cellulose molecular weights determined by viscosimetry. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 37:2331–2340.Google Scholar

  • Gullichsen, J., Kolehmainen, H., Sundqvist, H. (1992) On the nonuniformity of the kraft cook. Pap. Puu-Pap. Tim. 74:486–490.Google Scholar

  • Håkansson, H., Ahlgren, P., Germgård, U. (2005a) The degree of disorder in hardwood kraft pulps studied by means of LODP. Cellulose 12:327–335.Google Scholar

  • Håkansson, H., Germgård, U., Sens, D. (2005b) Influence of xylan on the degradability of laboratory kraft pulps from hardwood and reed canary grass in acid hydrolysis. Cellulose 12:621–628.Google Scholar

  • Hartler, N., Östberg, K. (1959) Impregnering vid sulfatkoket. Svensk Papperstid. 62:524–533.Google Scholar

  • Hultholm, T. (2004) Impregnation behavior of the active ions in the kraft process. Academic dissertation, Åbo Akademi University.Google Scholar

  • Jansson, J. (1974) Analytik der Polysaccharide in Holz und Zellstoff. Faserforschung und textiltechnique 25:375–382.Google Scholar

  • Karlström, K. (2009) Extended impregnation kraft cooking of softwood: effects on reject, yield, pulping uniformity, PhD thesis, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar

  • Leschinsky, M., Zuckerstätter, G., Weber, H., Patt, R., Sixta, H. (2008) Effect of autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus wood on lignin structure. Part 2. Influence of autohydrolysis intensity. Holzforschung 62:653–658.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Määttänen, M., Tikka, P. (2012a) Determination of phenomena involved in impregnation of softwood chips. Part 1: Method for calculating the true penetration degree. Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 27:550–558.Google Scholar

  • Määttänen, M., Tikka, P. (2012b) Determination of phenomena involved in impregnation of softwood chips. Part 2: Alkali uptake, alkali consumption and impregnation yield. Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 27:559–567.Google Scholar

  • Malkov, S., Tikka, P., Kuzmin, V., Baldakhinov, B. (2002) Efficiency of chip presteaming – result of heating and air escape processes. Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 17:420–426.Google Scholar

  • Malkov, S., Tikka, P., Gustafson, R., Nuopponen, M., Vuorinen, T. (2003) Towards complete impregnation of wood chips with aqueous solutions, Part 5: improving uniformity of kraft displacement batch pulping. Pap Puu-Pap Tim. 84:215–220.Google Scholar

  • Marcoccia, B., Prough, J. R., Engström, J., Gullichsen, J. (1999) Continuos cooking applications, Papermaking Science and Technology, Book 6A, A513–A570.Google Scholar

  • Matsumura, J., Booker, R., Ridoutt, B., Donaldson, L., Mikajiri, N., Matsunaga, H., Oda, K. (1999) Impregnation of radiata pine wood by vacuum treatment, II: effect of pre-steaming on wood structure and resin content. J. Wood Sci. 45:456–462.Google Scholar

  • Pakkanen, H., Alén, R. (2013) Alkali consumption of aliphatic carboxylic acids during alkaline pulping of wood and nonwood feedstocks. Holzforschung 67:643–650.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Sixta, H. (2006) Multistage kraft pulping. In: Handbook of Pulp. Ed. Sixta, H. vol. 1. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany. pp. 325–365.Google Scholar

  • Sixta, H., Borgards, A. (1999) New technology for the production of high-purity dissolving pulps. Das Papier. 4:220–234.Google Scholar

  • Sixta, H., Schild, G. (2009) A new generation kraft process. Lenzinger Berichte. 87:26–37.Google Scholar

  • Sixta, H., Potthast, A., Krotschek, A. (2006) Mass transfer in kraft cooking. In: Handbook of Pulp. Ed. Sixta, H. vol. 1. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany. pp. 122–163.Google Scholar

  • Sjöström, E. Wood Chemistry: Fundamentals and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, 1981.Google Scholar

  • Testova, L., Nieminen, K., Penttilä, P., Serimaa, R., Potthast, A., Sixta, H. (2014) Cellulose degradation in alkaline media upon acidic pretreatment and stabilization. Carbohydr. Polym. 100:185–194.Google Scholar

  • Tunc, M, Chheda, J., van der Heide, E., Morris, J., van Heiningen, A. (2013) Pretreatment of hardwood chips via autohydrolysis supported by acetic and formic acid. Holzforschung 68:401–409.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Törnqvist, M., Hurme, T., Rosenholm, J. (2001) The effect of pressure steaming on the steady state ion diffusion and drift speed in wood. Holzforschung 55:441–447.Google Scholar

  • Zanuttini, M., Marzocchi, V. (2000) Pattern of alkaline impregnation of poplar wood at moderate conditions. Holzforschung 54:636–639.Google Scholar

  • Zanuttini, M., Marzocchi, V., Mocchiutti, P., Inalbon, M. (2005) Deacetylation consequences in pulping processes. Holz Roh Werkst. 63:149–153.Google Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Elisabet Brännvall, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, e-mail: .

Received: 2015-05-05

Accepted: 2015-08-24

Published Online: 2015-09-17

Published in Print: 2016-05-01

Citation Information: Holzforschung, Volume 70, Issue 5, Pages 393–399, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2015-0104.

Export Citation

©2016 by De Gruyter.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Jaco-Pierre van der Merwe, Reino Pulkki, Pierre Ackerman, and Dirk Längin
Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science, 2017, Page 1

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in