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Wood Research and Technology


Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

Editor-in-Chief: Faix, Oskar / Salmén, Lennart

Editorial Board: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Burgert, Ingo / Rio, Jose C. / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Laine, Christiane / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Potthast, Antje / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Takano, Toshiyuki / Tamminen, Tarja / Theliander, Hans / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

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Volume 71, Issue 2


Effects of hot water extraction (HWE) of Douglas fir as a pre-process for the sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL)

Rui Zhu
  • Corresponding author
  • Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, 2001 East Grimes Way, Pullman, WA 99164, United States of America
  • Composite Materials and Engineering Center, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, United States of America
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  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Vikram Yadama
  • Composite Materials and Engineering Center, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, United States of America
  • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, United States of America
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Published Online: 2016-10-08 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2016-0080


The process named “sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose” (SPORL) is designed for the digestion of softwoods within the framework of the biorefinery concept. “Hot water extraction (HWE)” is an environmentally benign and low-cost pretreatment, which only needs water as a reagent. In the present study, HWE has been investigated as a pre-process prior to SPORL with Douglas fir as feedstock. The SPORL parameters, namely, temperature and treatment time, were in the range 135–155°C and 40–120 min, respectively, while the sulfuric acid concentration was 0.2–0.4% (v/v). The aim was to maximize the enzymatic digestibility of the treated wood. The severity of SPORL at different pretreatment conditions was characterized by the combined severity factor (CSF). The HWE pre-process led to a two-fold increase in specific surface area of the substrate. More hemicellulosic-derived simple sugars were dissolved in the spent liquor (SL) as the CSF increased from 1.23 to 1.82. A maximum enzymatic digestibility of 64.3% was attained when SPORL was conducted at 155°C for 120 min with a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.4% (v/v). A considerably high enzymatic digestibility (~55–60%) is still achievable by incorporating HWE prior to SPORL, even if the SPORL severity is reduced, namely to a lower temperature (145°C), a shorter time (80 min), and a lower acid volume (0.3% v/v).

Keywords: biorefinery; combined severity factor (CSF); Douglas fir; enzymatic digestibility; hot water extraction (HWE); HWE-SPORL; sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL)


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About the article

Received: 2016-05-11

Accepted: 2016-08-29

Published Online: 2016-10-08

Published in Print: 2017-02-01

Citation Information: Holzforschung, Volume 71, Issue 2, Pages 91–98, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2016-0080.

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