Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …
Wood Research and Technology


Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

Editor-in-Chief: Salmén, Lennart

Editorial Board: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Burgert, Ingo / Rio, Jose C. / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Laine, Christiane / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Potthast, Antje / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Takano, Toshiyuki / Tamminen, Tarja / Theliander, Hans / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 2.579

CiteScore 2018: 2.43

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.829
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.082

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 71, Issue 7-8


Brightness stability of eucalyptus-dissolving pulps: effect of the bleaching sequence

Jordan Perrin
  • Corresponding author
  • Grenoble INP-Pagora, The International School of Paper, Print Media and Biomaterials, 461 rue de la Papeterie, CS 10065, 38402 Saint Martin d’Hères Cedex, Grenoble, France
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Dominique Lachenal
  • Grenoble INP-Pagora, The International School of Paper, Print Media and Biomaterials, 461 rue de la Papeterie, CS 10065, 38402 Saint Martin d’Hères Cedex, Grenoble, France
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Christine Chirat
  • Grenoble INP-Pagora, The International School of Paper, Print Media and Biomaterials, 461 rue de la Papeterie, CS 10065, 38402 Saint Martin d’Hères Cedex, Grenoble, France
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-04-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2016-0208


The factors governing the brightness reversion (BR) of dissolving pulps under heat exposure are investigated. Carbonyl (CO) groups were artificially introduced on fully bleached pulp by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation. It was demonstrated that the CO groups are responsible for loss of brightness stability (BS). These groups were partly eliminated by an alkaline extraction stage (E), which improved BS. However, an alkaline peroxide stage (P) was more efficient than E to improve BS, but without any additional CO loss. Moreover, an unbleached dissolving pulp was bleached in the laboratory by elemental chlorine free (ECF) and totally chlorine free (TCF) [ozone-based] sequences to the same brightness. The very low CO content was about the same in both cases. The ECF-bleached pulp showed substantially lower BS than the TCF pulp. These results are interpreted such that the chemistry of chromophores in the unbleached pulp also governs BS. In situ detection of phenolic and quinone chromophores in bleached dissolving pulp was performed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. The content of these groups was bleaching-sequence-dependent, which may be related to the BS differences.

Keywords: brightness reversion; carbonyl groups; dissolving pulp; ECF and TCF bleaching; EPR spectroscopy; phenolic OH groups; quinone chromophores; UV resonance Raman spectroscopy


  • Abbot, J. (1994) Reaction of ortho-quinones and the model compound 4-t-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone in alkaline peroxide. Res. Chem. Intermed. 21:535–562.Google Scholar

  • Bährle, C., Nick, T.U., Bennati, M., Jeschke, G., Vogel, F. (2015) High-field electron paramagnetic resonance and density functional theory study of stable organic radicals in lignin: influence of the extraction process, botanical origin, and protonation reactions on the radical g tensor. J. Phys. Chem. A 119:6475–6482.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bohrn, R., Potthast, A., Schiehser, S., Rosenau, T., Sixta, H., Kosma, P. (2006) The FDAM method: determination of carboxyl profiles in cellulosic materials by combining group-selective fluorescence labeling with GPC. Biomacromolecules 7:1743–1750.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Brage, C., Eriksson, T., Gierer, J. (1991) Reactions of chlorine dioxide with lignins in unbleached pulps part I. Holzforschung 45:23–30.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cardona-Barrau, D., Matéo, C., Lachenal, D., Chirat, C. (2003) Application of ESR spectroscopy in bleaching studies. Holzforschung 57:171–180.Google Scholar

  • Ehrhardt, S.M. (1984) An investigation of the vibrational spectra of lignin model compounds. Doctoral thesis, Lawrence University, Appleton, US.Google Scholar

  • Forsskahl, I., Popoff, T., Theander, O. (1976) Reactions of D-xylose and D-glucose in alkaline, aqueous solutions. Carbohydr. Res. 48:13–21.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Forsskåhl, I., Tylli, H., Olkkonen, C. (1993) Influence of quinoid and aromatic chromophores on the light-induced yellowing of high-yield pulps. In: 7th Int. Symp. Wood Pulp. Chem. pp. 25–28.Google Scholar

  • Gierer, J. (1990) Basic principles of bleaching – part 1: cationic and radical processes. Holzforschung 44:387–394.Google Scholar

  • Grönroos, A.J., Pitkanen, M., Vuolle, M. (1998) Radical formation in peroxide-bleached kraft pulp. J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 24:286–290.Google Scholar

  • Gullichsen, J. (1965) The influence of temperature and humidity in the color reversion of pulp. Pap. Ja Puu 47:215f.Google Scholar

  • Hon, D.N.-S. (1992) Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy. In: Methods Lignin Chem. Eds. Lin, S.Y. and Dence, C.W. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 274–286.Google Scholar

  • Hosoya, T., Rosenau, T. (2013) Degradation of 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone by hydrogen peroxide: a combined kinetic and theoretical study. J. Org. Chem. 78:3176–3182.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Jääskeläinen, A.-S., Toikka, K., Lähdetie, A., Liitiä, T., Vuorinen, T., Jääkeläinen, A.S. (2009) Reactions of aromatic structures in brightness reversion of fully-bleached eucalyptus kraft pulps. Holzforschung 63:278–281.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Jullander, I., Brune, K. (1957) Study of the relation between brightness reversion and carbonyl content in cellulose pulp. Acta Chem. Scand. 11:570–571.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Köpcke, V., Ibarra, D., Larsson, P.T., Ek, M. (2010) Optimization of treatment sequences for the production of dissolving pulp from birch kraft pulp. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 25:031–038.Google Scholar

  • Korntner, P., Hosoya, T., Dietz, T., Eibinger, K., Reiter, H., Spitzbart, M., Röder, T., Borgards, A., Kreiner, W., Mahler, A.K., Winter, H., Groiss, Y., French, A.D., Henniges, U., Potthast, A., Rosenau, T. (2015) Chromophores in lignin-free cellulosic materials belong to three compound classes. Chromophores in cellulosics, XII. Cellulose 22:1053–1062.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Lachenal, D., Pipon, G., Chirat, C. (2006) Final pulp bleaching by ozonation: chemical justification and practical operating conditions. Pulp Pap. Canada 107:31–34.Google Scholar

  • Lewin, M. (1965) The yellowing of cotton cellulose – part III: on the mechanism of yellowing upon aging and alkaline extraction. Text. Res. J. 35:979–986.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lewin, M. (1997) Oxidation and aging of cellulose. Macromol. Symp. 118:715–724.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lewin, M., Epstein, J.A. (1962) Functional groups and degradation of cotton oxidized by hypochlorite. J. Polym. Sci. 58: 1023–1037.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Liitiä, T., Tamminen, T. (2007) How to evaluate the kraft pulp stability? In: Proceedings of 3rd ICEP, Belo Horizonte (Brazil).Google Scholar

  • Loureiro, P.E.G., Fernandes, A.J.S., Carvalho, M.G.V.S., Evtuguin, D. V. (2010) The assessment of chromophores in bleached cellulosic pulps employing UV-Raman spectroscopy. Carbohydr. Res. 345:1442–1451.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mateo, C., Chirat, C., Ait-Quaret, R., Lachenal, D. (2001) Nature and removal of the last colored chromophores in kraft pulps. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 16:385–388.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Métais, A., Hostachy, J., Van Wyk, B. (2013) Ozone bleaching for disolving pulp. Pap. 360° 8:38–41.Google Scholar

  • Perrin, J., Pouyet, F., Lachenal, D. (2015) Totally chlorine-free bleaching sequences for paper and dissolving eucalypt pulps. In: Proceeding of 7th ICEP Vitoria (Brazil).Google Scholar

  • Pipon, G., Chirat, C., Lachenal, D. (2007) Comparative effect of ozone, chlorine dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide on lignin: Reactions affecting pulp colour in the final bleaching stage. Holzforschung 61:628–633.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Pouyet, F., Chirat, C., Lachenal, D. (2013) On the origin of cellulose depolymerization during ozone treatment of hardwood kraft pulp. BioResources 8:5289–5298.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pouyet, F., Chirat, C., Potthast, A., Lachenal, D. (2014) Formation of carbonyl groups on cellulose during ozone treatment of pulp: consequences for pulp bleaching. Carbohydr. Polym. 109:85–91.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Ragnar, M., Eriksson, T., Reitberger, T. (1999) Radical formation in ozone reactions with lignin and carbohydrate model compounds. Holzforschung 53:292–298.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Röhrling, J., Potthast, A., Rosenau, T., Lange, T., Borgards, A., Sixta, H., Kosma, P. (2002a) A novel method for the determination of carbonyl groups in cellulosics by fluorescence labeling. 2. Validation and applications. Biomacromolecules 3:969–975.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Röhrling, J., Potthast, A., Rosenau, T., Lange, T., Ebner, G., Sixta, H., Kosma, P. (2002b) A novel method for the determination of carbonyl groups in cellulosics by fluorescence labeling. 1. Method Development. Biomacromolecules 3:959–968.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rosenau, T., Potthast, A., Milacher, W., Hofinger, A., Kosma, P. (2004) Isolation and identification of residual chromophores in cellulosic materials. Polymer (Guildf). 45:6437–6443.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sevastyanova, O. (2005) On the importance of oxidizable structures in bleached kraft pulps. Doctoral Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm 2005.Google Scholar

  • Sihtola, H. (1963) Comparison and conversion of viscosity and DP-values determinated by different methods. Pap. Ja Puu 4:225–232.Google Scholar

  • Silva, V.L., Lino, A.G., Ribeiro, R.A., Colodette, J.L., Forsström, A., Wackerberg, E. (2011) Factors affecting brightness reversion of hardwood kraft pulps. BioResources 6:4801–4814.Google Scholar

  • Sixta, H. Handbook of pulp. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany, 2006.Google Scholar

  • Suess, H.U. Pulp Bleaching Today. DeGruyter, Berlin, Germany, 2010.Google Scholar

  • Suess, H.U., Filho, C.L. (2003) How to improve brightness stability of eucalyptus kraft pulp. In: Proceeding of 36th ABTCP (2003) Sao Paulo (Brazil).Google Scholar

  • Vikkula, A., Valkama, J., Vuorinen, T. (2006) Formation of aromatic and other unsaturated end groups in carboxymethyl cellulose during hot alkaline treatment. Cellulose 13:593–600.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zhou, Z., Jääskeläinen, A.-S., Adorjan, I., Potthast, A., Kosma, P., Vuorinen, T. (2011) Brightness reversion of eucalyptus kraft pulp: effect of carbonyl groups generated by hypochlorous acid oxidation. Holzforschung 65:289–294.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-11-04

Accepted: 2017-03-15

Published Online: 2017-04-26

Published in Print: 2017-07-26

Citation Information: Holzforschung, Volume 71, Issue 7-8, Pages 625–631, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2016-0208.

Export Citation

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in