Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …
Wood Research and Technology


Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

Editor-in-Chief: Salmén, Lennart

Editorial Board: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Burgert, Ingo / Rio, Jose C. / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Laine, Christiane / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Potthast, Antje / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Takano, Toshiyuki / Tamminen, Tarja / Theliander, Hans / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 2.579

CiteScore 2018: 2.43

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.829
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.082

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 72, Issue 9


Optical characteristics of Douglas fir at various densities, grain directions and thicknesses investigated by near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR-SRS)

Te Ma
  • Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Gary Schajer
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, 6250 Applied Science Lane, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1Z4, Canada
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Tetsuya Inagaki
  • Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Zarin Pirouz / Satoru Tsuchikawa
  • Corresponding author
  • Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-05-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2017-0213


A near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR-SRS) system, also called the hyperspectral imaging system, was applied in a line scanning model combined with a concentrated halogen light source (Ø 1 mm), and spatially resolved reflectance images of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] wood were obtained. The samples with various densities, grain directions and thicknesses were observed in the NIR range of 1000–1600 nm. Then, a nonlinear curve-fitting algorithm was applied based on the steady-state diffusion theory model to estimate the absorption coefficient (μa), and reduced scattering coefficients (μs) both parallel and perpendicular to the grain direction at each measurement position. The absorption scattering coefficients at 1457 nm and two kinds of reduced scattering coefficients at 1002 nm were highly correlated with wood densities measured by an X-ray densitometer. The correlation coefficients were 0.953 and 0.987 for 3 mm and 5 mm samples, respectively, while three optical profiles were combined. It can be concluded that NIR-SRS is a fast and simple method for measuring the optical characteristics of softwood, although it has a non-homogeneous cellular structure. Sub-surface density and grain direction could be predicted with satisfactory accuracy based on a few key wavelengths without relying on multivariate statistical analysis.

Keywords: absorption coefficient; grain direction; halogen point light source; near-infrared hyperspectral imaging camera; optical characteristics variation; reduced scattering coefficient; spatially resolved spectroscopy; steady-state diffusion theory; wood density


  • Bogomolov, A., Belikova, V., Galyanin, V., Melenteva, A., Meyer, H. (2017) Reference-free spectroscopic determination of fat and protein in milk in the visible and near infrared region below 1000 nm using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance fiber probe. Talanta. 167:563–572.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • D’Andrea, C., Farina, A., Comelli, D., Pifferi, A., Taroni, P., Valentini, G., Cubeddu, R., Zoia, L., Orlandi, M., Kienle, A. (2008) Time-resolved optical spectroscopy of wood. Appl. Spectrosc. 62:569–574.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Erkinbaev, C., Herremans, E., Trong, N., Jakubczyk, E., Verboven, P., Nicolaï, B., Saeys, W. (2014) Contactless and non-destructive differentiation of microstructures of sugar foams by hyperspectral scatter imaging. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. 24:131–137.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Farrell, T.J., Patterson, M.S., Wilson, B. (1992) A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo. Med. Phys. 19:879–888.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ishimaru, A. Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media. Academic Press, New York, 1978. No. of pages: 272. ISBN: 9780323158329.Google Scholar

  • Kitamura, R., Inagaki, T., Tsuchikawa, S. (2016) Determination of true optical absorption and scattering coefficient of wooden cell wall substance by time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy. Opt. Express 24:3999–4009.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Kobori, H., Gorretta, N., Rabatel, G., Bellon-Maurel, V., Chaix, G., Roger, J.M., Tsuchikawa, S. (2013) Applicability of Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging for monitoring wood moisture content (MC). Holzforschung 67:307–314.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Konagaya, K., Inagaki, T., Kitamura, R., Tsuchikawa, S. (2016) Optical properties of drying wood studied by time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy. Opt. Express. 24:9561–9573.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Kurata, Y., Fujimoto, T., Tsuchikawa, S. (2011) Optical characteristics of wood investigated by time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy. Holzforschung 65:389–395.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Leblon, B., Adedipe, O., Hans, G., Haddadi, A., Tsuchikawa, S., Burger, J., Stirling, R., Pirouz, Z., Groves, K., Nader, J., LaRocque, A. (2013) A review of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring moisture content and density of solid wood. Forest. Chron. 89:595–606.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ma, T., Inagaki, T., Tsuchikawa, S. (2017) Calibration of SilviScan data of Cryptomeria japonica wood concerning density and microfibril angles with NIR hyperspectral imaging with high spatial resolution. Holzforschung. 71:341–347.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Martens, H., Naes, T. Multivariate Calibration. Wiley, New York, 1989. No. of pages: 504, ISBN: 047190979.Google Scholar

  • Meder, R., Meglen, R.R. (2012) Near infrared spectroscopic and hyperspectral imaging of compression wood in Pinus radiata D. Don. J. Near Infrared Spec. 20:583–589.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Peng, Y., Lu, R. (2008) Analysis of spatially resolved hyperspectral scattering images for assessing apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 48:52–62.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Qin, J., Lu, R. (2007) Measurement of the absorption and scattering properties of turbid liquid foods using hyperspectral imaging. Appl. Spectrosc. 61:388–396.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Qin, J., Lu, R. (2008) Measurement of the optical properties of fruits and vegetables using spatially resolved hyperspectral diffuse reflectance imaging technique. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 49:355–365.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Qin, J., Kim, M.S., Chao, K., Chan, D.E., Delwiche, S.R., Cho, B.K. (2017) Line-scan hyperspectral imaging techniques for food safety and quality applications. Appl. Sci. 7:125.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Savitzky, A., Golay, M.J.E. (1964) Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures. Anal. Chem. 36:1627–1639.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Simonaho, S.P., Palviaimen, J., Tolonen, Y., Silvennoinen, R. (2004) Determination of wood grain direction from laser light scattering pattern. Opt. Lasers Eng. 41:95–103.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Terrance, E.C., Sujit, B. Surface Analysis of Paper. CRC Press, New York, 1995. No. of pages: 368. ISBN: 0849389925.Google Scholar

  • Thumm, A., Riddell, M., Nanayakkara, B., Harrington, J., Meder, R. (2010) Near infrared hyperspectral imaging applied to mapping chemical composition in wood samples. J. Near Infrared Spec. 18:507–515.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Tsuchikawa, S., Kobori, H. (2015) A review of recent application of near infrared spectroscopy to wood science and technology. J. Wood Sci. 61:213–220.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Yao, S., Pu, J. (2009) Application of near infrared spectroscopy in analysis of wood properties. Spectrosc. Spect. Anal. 29:974–978.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Zhou, J., Shen, J. (2003) Ellipse detection and phase demodulation for wood grain orientation measurement based on the tracheid effect. Opt. Lasers Eng. 39:73–89.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zhu, Q., He, C., Lu, R., Mendoza, F., Cen, H. (2015) Ripeness evaluation of “Sun Bright” tomato using optical absorption and scattering properties. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 103:27–34.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-12-19

Accepted: 2018-04-10

Published Online: 2018-05-09

Published in Print: 2018-09-25

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Citation Information: Holzforschung, Volume 72, Issue 9, Pages 789–796, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2017-0213.

Export Citation

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Te Ma, Tetsuya Inagaki, Mayuka Ban, and Satoru Tsuchikawa
Holzforschung, 2019, Volume 73, Number 4, Page 323

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in