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Wood Research and Technology


Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

Editor-in-Chief: Salmén, Lennart

Editorial Board: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Burgert, Ingo / Rio, Jose C. / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Laine, Christiane / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Potthast, Antje / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Sipilä, Jussi / Takano, Toshiyuki / Tamminen, Tarja / Theliander, Hans / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 2.579

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Volume 73, Issue 2


Time-dependent ammonia emissions from fumed oak wood determined by micro-chamber/thermal extractor (μCTE) and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy

Elfriede Hogger
  • Corresponding author
  • Wood K plus – Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH, Competence Centre for Wood Composites and Wood Chemistry, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz, Austria
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Klaus Bauer / Eva Höllbacher
  • Wood K plus – Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH, Competence Centre for Wood Composites and Wood Chemistry, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz, Austria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Notburga Gierlinger
  • Institute for Biophysics, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 10, 1190 Wien, Austria
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/ Johannes Konnerth
  • Institute of Wood Technology and Renewable Materials, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Science, Gregor-Mendel-Straße 33, 1180 Wien, Austria
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hendrikus W.G. van Herwijnen
  • Wood K plus – Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH, Competence Centre for Wood Composites and Wood Chemistry, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz, Austria
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Published Online: 2018-07-27 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2018-0042


The ongoing preference for dark colours in parquet and furniture is a driving force for colour modification of bright wood species. The treatment of oak wood with gaseous ammonia (fuming) leads to dark colours, but residual ammonia in the wood may lead to bonding failures with resins, odour nuisance and thus customer complaints. The focus of the present paper is the determination and emission of remaining ammonia in fumed oak. A fast and convenient approach based on Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy was developed to replace the currently applied time-consuming and complex determination procedures. The integrated area of the infrared (IR) region between 1575 and 1535 cm−1 shows a relationship with the coefficient of determination (R2=0.76) to the residual ammonia content determined by the micro-chamber/thermal extractor (μCTE) method. The prediction accuracy was further improved by partial least square regression calculations. Promising models with high R2 (0.85), low root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSE-CV=1.08%) with five principal components were established and already integrated successfully into the production as input control. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy proved to be a simple and fast predictive method to estimate residual ammonia in fumed oak.

Keywords: ammonia; calibration of FTIR data; colour of wood; emission from wood; FTIR-ATR; fuming; micro-chamber/thermal extractor; oak; partial least square PLSR evaluation


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About the article

Received: 2018-02-28

Accepted: 2018-07-06

Published Online: 2018-07-27

Published in Print: 2019-02-25

Funding Source: Steirische Wirstschaftsförderungsgesellschaft

Award identifier / Grant number:

Scheucher Holzindustrie GmbH acknowledges the Steirische Wirstschaftsförderungsgesellschaft mbH (SFG) for funding this project in the Voraus! Denken program (Funder Id: 10.13039/501100007945, Project No. Wood K plus thanks Scheucher for financial support.

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Citation Information: Holzforschung, Volume 73, Issue 2, Pages 165–170, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2018-0042.

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