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Wood Research and Technology


Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

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Effect of knots and holes on the modulus of elasticity prediction and mapping of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) veneer using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI)

Imran Arra’d Sofianto
  • Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Tetsuya Inagaki
  • Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Te Ma
  • Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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/ Satoru Tsuchikawa
  • Corresponding author
  • Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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Published Online: 2018-09-18 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2018-0060


Naturally occurring knots reduce the mechanical strength of wood. Veneers from sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) served as research material to study the effect of knots and holes. Veneer samples were first subjected to a three-point bending test to obtain measured modulus of elasticity (MOE) values. Then, near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) was used to construct a prediction model and map the predicted MOE values. This is the first attempt for MOE prediction from the entire veneer surface based on NIR-HSI technology, while the mathematical part relies on chemometrics and cross-validation partial least squares regression (CV-PLSR). Maps of MOE prediction values could distinguish between latewood (LW) and earlywood (EW), as well as between a sound knot and a dead knot.

Keywords: hole; knot; modulus of elasticity (MOE); near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI); sugi; veneer


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About the article

Received: 2018-03-28

Accepted: 2018-08-09

Published Online: 2018-09-18

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: This research was partly supported by the Research and Development Projects for Application in Promoting New Policy of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, Japan [No. 22003]. The authors gratefully thank Iida Kogyo, Co. Ltd., Komaki, Aichi, Japan, for providing the veneer samples and MOE veneer measurement by three-point bending test for the research.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Citation Information: Holzforschung, 20180060, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2018-0060.

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