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Wood Research and Technology


Cellulose – Hemicelluloses – Lignin – Wood Extractives

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Effect of pulp fibers on the surface softness component of hygiene paper

Jung Yoon Park
  • Department of Forest Product and Biotechnology, Kookmin University, 77 Jeongneong-ro, Seoungbuk-gu, Seoul 02707, Republic of Korea
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Lili Melani
  • Department of Forest Product and Biotechnology, Kookmin University, 77 Jeongneong-ro, Seoungbuk-gu, Seoul 02707, Republic of Korea
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hyeonggyu Lee
  • Department of Forest Product and Biotechnology, Kookmin University, 77 Jeongneong-ro, Seoungbuk-gu, Seoul 02707, Republic of Korea
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hyoung Jin Kim
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Forest Product and Biotechnology, Kookmin University, 77 Jeongneong-ro, Seoungbuk-gu, Seoul 02707, Republic of Korea
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  • Other articles by this author:
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Published Online: 2019-11-15 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2019-0080


This study analyzed the effect that pulp fibers have on the surface softness component of hygiene paper. The surface softness component has more of an influence on the evaluation of subjective softness results than the bulk softness component. Using the surface softness measurement technique, this study aimed to evaluate the effect that fibers have on the softness of hygiene paper substrate via objective numerical values to measure the surface softness component of hand sheets composed of various pulp species. The results indicate that coarseness effects had the largest effect on softness among the various fiber characteristics, such as average fiber length, width and coarseness. As fiber coarseness increased, a rough surface formed, which resulted in an increase in the mean deviation from the average friction (MMD). Nonwood fibers had long fiber length and low coarseness, which enables the production of hygiene paper with high strength and softness. This study hopefully could lead to the development of various process technologies that may improve the softness of hygiene paper products.

Keywords: fiber materials; hygiene paper; mean deviation from the average friction (MMD); softness; surface softness


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About the article

Received: 2019-03-25

Accepted: 2019-08-29

Published Online: 2019-11-15

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: We acknowledge financial support from the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea, Funder Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003662 (project no. 10065715).

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Citation Information: Holzforschung, 20190080, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2019-0080.

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