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Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation

Editor-in-Chief: Chetrite, Gérard S.

Editorial Board: Alexis, Michael N. / Baniahmad, Aria / Beato, Miguel / Bouillon, Roger / Brodie, Angela / Carruba, Giuseppe / Chen, Shiuan / Cidlowski, John A. / Clarke, Robert / Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J.T. / Darbre, Philippa D. / Drouin, Jacques / Dufau, Maria L. / Edwards, Dean P. / Falany, Charles N. / Fernandez-Perez, Leandro / Ferroud, Clotilde / Feve, Bruno / Flores-Morales, Amilcar / Foster, Michelle T. / Garcia-Segura, Luis M. / Gastaldelli, Amalia / Gee, Julia M.W. / Genazzani, Andrea R. / Greene, Geoffrey L. / Groner, Bernd / Hampl, Richard / Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena / Hubalek, Michael / Iwase, Hirotaka / Jordan, V. Craig / Klocker, Helmut / Kloet, Ronald / Labrie, Fernand / Mendelson, Carole R. / Mück, Alfred O. / Nicola, Alejandro F. / O'Malley, Bert W. / Raynaud, Jean-Pierre / Ruan, Xiangyan / Russo, Jose / Saad, Farid / Sanchez, Edwin R. / Schally, Andrew V. / Schillaci, Roxana / Schindler, Adolf E. / Söderqvist, Gunnar / Speirs, Valerie / Stanczyk, Frank Z. / Starka, Luboslav / Sutter, Thomas R. / Tresguerres, Jesús A. / Wahli, Walter / Wildt, Ludwig / Yang, Kaiping / Yu, Qi

CiteScore 2018: 2.43

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.947
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.837

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Volume 2, Issue 2


Effect of trenbolone acetate plus estradiol on transcriptional regulation of metabolism pathways in bovine liver

Christiane Becker / Irmgard Riedmaier / Martina Reiter / Ales Tichopad / Michael W. Pfaffl
  • Physiology Weihenstephan, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Freising, Germany
  • BioEPS GmbH, Freising, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Heinrich H.D. Meyer
Published Online: 2010-06-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hmbci.2010.029


Background: The use of anabolic steroids is forbidden for food producing animals in the EU. Owing to the advantages of anabolics for production profitability, illegal application is appealing. Anabolics are known to influence gene expression of several tissues. We focused on the liver because of its important role in nutrient and hormone metabolism. The aim of the present study was to find differentially regulated metabolic pathways, which might be used as treatment biomarkers.

Material and methods: A total of 18 Nguni heifers were allocated equally to a control group and a treatment group and were implanted with Revalor H. Expression of 34 target genes was measured using reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).

Results: Upregulation of androgen receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and downregulation of IGF-2, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, steroid hormone binding globulin, insulin receptor α, insulin receptor β, tyrosine aminotransferase, 17β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase 2,3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl-coenzym-A-synthase, cathepsin B, hepatocyte growth factor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, apolipoprotein 2 and tumor necrosis factor α was demonstrated.

Conclusion: Several biochemical pathways showed different regulations on mRNA level under the influence of trenbolone acetate plus estradiol. The inhibition of nutrient metabolism and protein breakdown seems to support growth processes. IGF-1 plays an important role in growth and development and thus the upregulation of IGF-1 could be responsible for the stimulation of growth in treated animals. The upregulation of IGF-1 could also be revealed as a possible risk factor for the generation of artherosclerotic plaques, which are known as long-term side effects following the use of anabolic steroids. Principal components analysis of RT-qPCR results showed that both groups arrange together and can be clearly separated. Therefore, these might be used as possible biomarkers in bovine liver.

Keywords: anabolic steroids; estradiol; liver; mRNA gene expression; principal components analysis; trenbolone acetate; reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction

About the article

Corresponding author: Christiane Becker, Physiology, Weihenstephan, TU Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85384 Freising, Germany Phone: +49-8161-713867, Fax: +49-8161-714204,

Received: 2010-03-04

Accepted: 2010-04-26

Published Online: 2010-06-11

Published in Print: 2010-08-01

Citation Information: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 257–265, ISSN (Online) 1868-1891, ISSN (Print) 1868-1883, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hmbci.2010.029.

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Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Irmgard Riedmaier, Michael W. Pfaffl, and Heinrich H. D. Meyer
Drug Testing and Analysis, 2012, Volume 4, Page 70
Irmgard Riedmaier, Vladimir Benes, Jonathon Blake, Nancy Bretschneider, Christian Zinser, Christiane Becker, Heinrich H.D. Meyer, and Michael W. Pfaffl
Analytical Chemistry, 2012, Volume 84, Number 15, Page 6863
T. Sigl, K. Gellrich, H. H. D. Meyer, M. Kaske, and S. Wiedemann
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2013, Volume 97, Number 2, Page 278
Irmgard Riedmaier, Michael W. Pfaffl, and Heinrich H. D. Meyer
Drug Testing and Analysis, 2011, Volume 3, Number 10, Page 676
C. Becker, I. Riedmaier, M. Reiter, A. Tichopad, M.J. Groot, A.A.M. Stolker, M.W. Pfaffl, M.F.W. Nielen, and H.H.D. Meyer
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2011, Volume 125, Number 3-5, Page 192
Christiane Becker, Irmgard Riedmaier, Martina Reiter, Ales Tichopad, Michael W. Pfaffl, and Heinrich H. D. Meyer
The Analyst, 2011, Volume 136, Number 6, Page 1204

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