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Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation

Editor-in-Chief: Chetrite, Gérard S.

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Volume 15, Issue 1


Pregnancy, obesity and insulin resistance: maternal overnutrition and the target windows of fetal development

Beverly S. Muhlhausler
  • Corresponding author
  • FOODplus Research Centre, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • Sansom Institute for Health Research, School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Jessica R. Gugusheff
  • FOODplus Research Centre, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Zhi Yi Ong
  • FOODplus Research Centre, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • Sansom Institute for Health Research, School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Mini A. Vithayathil
  • FOODplus Research Centre, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-08-10 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hmbci-2013-0029


A substantial body of literature has demonstrated that the nutritional environment an individual experiences before birth or in early infancy is a key determinant of their health outcomes across the life course. This concept, the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis, was initially focused on the adverse consequences of exposure to a suboptimal nutrient supply and provided evidence that maternal undernutrition, fetal growth restriction, and low birth weight were associated with heightened risk of central adiposity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. More recently, the epidemic rise in the incidence of maternal obesity has seen the attention of the DOHaD field turn toward identifying the impact on the offspring of exposure to an excess nutrient supply in early life. The association between maternal obesity and increased risk of obesity in the offspring has been documented in human populations worldwide, and animal models have provided critical insights into the biological mechanisms that drive this relationship. This review will discuss the important roles that programming of the adipocyte and programming of the central neural networks which control appetite and reward play in the early life programming of metabolic disease by maternal overnutrition. It will also highlight the important research gaps and challenges that remain to be addressed and provide a personal perspective on where the field should be heading in the coming 5–10 years.

Keywords: adipose tissue; appetite; fatty acids; fetal programming; maternal nutrition


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About the article

Corresponding author: Dr. Beverly Muhlhausler, FOODplus Research Centre, School of Agriculture Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5064, Australia, Phone: +61 8 8313 0848, Fax: +61 8 8303 7135

Received: 2013-06-14

Accepted: 2013-07-02

Published Online: 2013-08-10

Published in Print: 2013-09-01

Citation Information: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 25–36, ISSN (Online) 1868-1891, ISSN (Print) 1868-1883, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hmbci-2013-0029.

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