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Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation

Editor-in-Chief: Chetrite, Gérard S.

Editorial Board: Alexis, Michael N. / Baniahmad, Aria / Beato, Miguel / Bouillon, Roger / Brodie, Angela / Carruba, Giuseppe / Chen, Shiuan / Cidlowski, John A. / Clarke, Robert / Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J.T. / Darbre, Philippa D. / Drouin, Jacques / Dufau, Maria L. / Edwards, Dean P. / Falany, Charles N. / Fernandez-Perez, Leandro / Ferroud, Clotilde / Feve, Bruno / Flores-Morales, Amilcar / Foster, Michelle T. / Garcia-Segura, Luis M. / Gastaldelli, Amalia / Gee, Julia M.W. / Genazzani, Andrea R. / Greene, Geoffrey L. / Groner, Bernd / Hampl, Richard / Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena / Hubalek, Michael / Iwase, Hirotaka / Jordan, V. Craig / Klocker, Helmut / Kloet, Ronald / Labrie, Fernand / Mendelson, Carole R. / Mück, Alfred O. / Nicola, Alejandro F. / O'Malley, Bert W. / Raynaud, Jean-Pierre / Ruan, Xiangyan / Russo, Jose / Saad, Farid / Sanchez, Edwin R. / Schally, Andrew V. / Schillaci, Roxana / Schindler, Adolf E. / Söderqvist, Gunnar / Speirs, Valerie / Stanczyk, Frank Z. / Starka, Luboslav / Sutter, Thomas R. / Tresguerres, Jesús A. / Wahli, Walter / Wildt, Ludwig / Yang, Kaiping / Yu, Qi

CiteScore 2017: 2.48

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Volume 18, Issue 3


Per3 length polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Ramanujam Karthikeyan
  • Department of Animal Behaviour and Physiology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Ganapathy Marimuthu
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Animal Behaviour and Physiology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Murugesan Sooriyakumar / Ahmed S. BaHammam
  • University Sleep Disorders Center, College of Medicine, National Plan for Science and Technology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ David Warren Spence / Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal / Gregory M. Brown / Daniel P. Cardinali
  • Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Teaching and Research, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-12-14 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hmbci-2013-0049


Background: A number of observations support the involvement of circadian clock genes in the regulation of metabolic processes. One of these circadian genes, Per3, exhibits a variable number tandem repeat length polymorphism, consisting of two alleles, namely four and five repeat alleles, in its exon 18. The objective of this study was to examine the existence of Per3 variants in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as compared to a non T2DM control group.

Methods: Intravenous blood samples were collected to obtain white blood cells from 302 T2DM patients and 330 non-diabetic, age- and sex-matched, individuals. Per3 genotyping was performed on DNA by polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Frequency of five repeat allele was higher, and that of four repeat allele lower, in T2DM patients as compared to non-diabetic controls (χ2=6.977, p=0.0082)

Conclusions: The results indicate an association of Per3 five repeat allele with T2DM occurrence and suggest that individuals with five repeat allele may be at a greater risk for T2DM as compared to those carrying the four repeat allele.

Keywords: circadian rhythms; clock gene; metabolism; Per3 polymorphism; type 2 diabetes mellitus


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About the article

Corresponding author: Prof. Ganapathy Marimuthu, Department of Animal Behaviour and Physiology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamil Nadu, India, Phone: +91-452-2459116 (Office), Mobile: +91-9791696463, Fax: +91-452-2459181, E-mail:

Received: 2013-09-02

Accepted: 2013-11-14

Published Online: 2013-12-14

Published in Print: 2014-06-01

Citation Information: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 145–149, ISSN (Online) 1868-1891, ISSN (Print) 1868-1883, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hmbci-2013-0049.

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