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Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation

Editor-in-Chief: Chetrite, Gérard S.

Editorial Board: Alexis, Michael N. / Baniahmad, Aria / Beato, Miguel / Bouillon, Roger / Brodie, Angela / Carruba, Giuseppe / Chen, Shiuan / Cidlowski, John A. / Clarke, Robert / Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J.T. / Darbre, Philippa D. / Drouin, Jacques / Dufau, Maria L. / Edwards, Dean P. / Falany, Charles N. / Fernandez-Perez, Leandro / Ferroud, Clotilde / Feve, Bruno / Flores-Morales, Amilcar / Foster, Michelle T. / Garcia-Segura, Luis M. / Gastaldelli, Amalia / Gee, Julia M.W. / Genazzani, Andrea R. / Greene, Geoffrey L. / Groner, Bernd / Hampl, Richard / Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena / Hubalek, Michael / Iwase, Hirotaka / Jordan, V. Craig / Klocker, Helmut / Kloet, Ronald / Labrie, Fernand / Mendelson, Carole R. / Mück, Alfred O. / Nicola, Alejandro F. / O'Malley, Bert W. / Raynaud, Jean-Pierre / Ruan, Xiangyan / Russo, Jose / Saad, Farid / Sanchez, Edwin R. / Schally, Andrew V. / Schillaci, Roxana / Schindler, Adolf E. / Söderqvist, Gunnar / Speirs, Valerie / Stanczyk, Frank Z. / Starka, Luboslav / Sutter, Thomas R. / Tresguerres, Jesús A. / Wahli, Walter / Wildt, Ludwig / Yang, Kaiping / Yu, Qi

4 Issues per year

CiteScore 2017: 2.48

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 1.021
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.830

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Volume 25, Issue 2


Hormones and endometrial carcinogenesis

Areege Kamal
  • Institute of Translational Medicine, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
  • The National Center for Early Detection of Cancer, Oncology Teaching Hospital, Baghdad Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Nicola Tempest
  • Institute of Translational Medicine, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
  • Liverpool Women’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Christina Parkes
  • Institute of Translational Medicine, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Rafah Alnafakh
  • Institute of Translational Medicine, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
  • Department of Pathology, Al-Hilla Teaching Hospital, Babil, Iraq
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Sofia Makrydima / Meera Adishesh / Dharani K. Hapangama
  • Corresponding author
  • Institute of Translational Medicine, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
  • Liverpool Women’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-03-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hmbci-2016-0005


Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in the Western World with an alarmingly increasing incidence related to longevity and obesity. Ovarian hormones regulate normal human endometrial cell proliferation, regeneration and function therefore are implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis directly or via influencing other hormones and metabolic pathways. Although the role of unopposed oestrogen in the pathogenesis of EC has received considerable attention, the emerging role of other hormones in this process, such as androgens and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) is less well recognised. This review aims to consolidate the current knowledge of the involvement of the three main endogenous ovarian hormones (oestrogens, progesterone and androgens) as well as the other hormones in endometrial carcinogenesis, to identify important avenues for future research.

Keywords: androgens; endometrial cancer; gonadotropin-releasing hormones; oestrogen; polycystic ovarian syndrome; progesterone


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About the article

Corresponding author: Dharani K. Hapangama, Institute of Translational Medicine, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L7 8SS, UK, Phone: +44 151 7959559, Fax: +44 151 795 9599, E-mail: ; and Liverpool Women’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK

Received: 2016-01-12

Accepted: 2016-02-05

Published Online: 2016-03-11

Published in Print: 2016-02-01

Citation Information: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 129–148, ISSN (Online) 1868-1891, ISSN (Print) 1868-1883, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hmbci-2016-0005.

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