Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Journal of Human Kinetics

The Journal of Academy of Physical Education in Katowice

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.798
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.252

CiteScore 2016: 1.16

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.483
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.792

Open Access
Online
ISSN
1899-7562
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Just Accepted

Issues

Perfectionism and Achievement Goals in Adult Male Elite Athletes who Compete at the National Level and above

Mehdi Zarghmi / Amin Ghamary / Sayed ShaykhShabani / Ahmad Varzaneh
Published Online: 2011-01-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-010-0058-6

Perfectionism and Achievement Goals in Adult Male Elite Athletes who Compete at the National Level and above

Different views on perfectionism, and different approaches about achievement goals, have led to studies on relationships between perfectionism and achievement goals. Stoeber et al. (2009) found relationship patterns from perfectionism and achievement goals in young Finnish ice-hockey players' under-16, in which it was found that perfectionistic strivings were associated with mastery-approach and performance-approach goals, and perfectionistic concerns with mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. Thus, as Stoeber et al. (2009) noted, findings can be generalized to older age-groups, as researchers have pointed out that achievement goal orientations in athletes may change when athletes become older (Elliot & Conroy, 2005; Spray & Keegan, 2005). Thus, we examined the theoretical model by Stoeber et al. (2009), to investigate relationships between perfectionism and achievement goals in adult elite athletes. For this purpose, 134 adult elite athletes completed questionnaires of MIPS (Stoeber, Otto & Stoll, English version, 2006), sport - MPS - 2 (Gotwals & Dunn, 2009), and AGQ - S (Conroy et al., 2003). On the assumption of the final theoretical model as based on a few significant indices, perfectionistic strivings was associated with mastery-approach and performance-approach goals, while perfectionistic concerns was associated with mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance goals. Contrary to expectations, there was no relationship between perfectionistic concerns and performance-approach goals. In fact, the present research results put in ambiguity the concept of perfectionism and the relationship between perfectionism and achievement goals, which were the main aims of our research. Moreover, a number of indices obtained structural equation modeling, which showed marginal to no significant effects. Thus, such equivocal results clearly imply that further research on context is needed. However, it appears that positive and negative aspects of perfectionism have complex relationships with each other

Keywords: perfectionism; achievement goals; perfectionistic strivings; perfectionistic concerns; mastery; performance; approach; avoidance

  • Ames C, Archer J. Mothers' belief about the role of ability and effort in school learning. J Educ Psychol, 1978. 79: 409-414.Google Scholar

  • Blatt SJ. The destructiveness of perfectionism: Implications for the treatment of depression. Am Psychol, 1995. 50: 1003-1020PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Burns DD. The spouse who is a perfectionist. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 1983. 17: 219-230.Google Scholar

  • Chang EC. On the perfectibility of the individual: Going beyond the dialectic of good versus evil. In E. C. Chang, & L. J. Sanna (Eds.), Virtue, vice, and personality: The complexity of behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2003. pp. 125-144.Google Scholar

  • Conroy DE, Elliot AJ, Hofer SM. A 2×2 achievement goals questionnaire for sport: Evidence for factorial invariance, temporal stability, and external validity. J Sport Exer Psy, 2003. 25: 456-476.Google Scholar

  • Dunn JGH, Dunn JC, Gotwals JK, Vallance JKH, Craft JM, Syrotuik DG. Establishing construct validity evidence for the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2006a. 7: 57-79.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Dunn JGH, Gotwals JK, Dunn JC, Syrotuik DG. Examining the relationship between perfectionism and trait anger in competitive sport. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2006b. 4: 7-24.Google Scholar

  • Duda JL, Nicholls JG. Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. J Educ Psychol, 1992. 89: 290-299CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dweck CS. Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 1986. 41: 1040-1048.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Elliot AJ, Conroy DE. Beyond the dichotomous model of achievement goals in sport and exercise psychology. Sport and Exercise Psychology Review, 2005. 1: 17-25.Google Scholar

  • Elliot AJ, Harackiewicz JM. Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. J Pers Soc Psychol, 1996. 70: 461-475.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Elliot AJ, McGregor HA. A 2_2 achievement goal framework. J Pers Soc Psychol, 2001. 80: 501-519.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Enns MW, Cox BJ. The nature and assessment of perfectionism: A critical analysis. In G. L. Flett, & P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 33-62). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2002.Google Scholar

  • Flett GL, Hewitt PL. The perils of perfectionism in sports and exercise. Curr Dir Psychol Sci, 2005. 14: 14-18.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Frost RO, Marten P, Lahart CM, Rosenblate R. The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Ther Res, 1990. 74: 449-468.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gill DL. Psychological Dynamics of Sport and Exercise. 2nd Edn. Human Kinetics Publishers, 2000.Google Scholar

  • Gotwals JK, Dunn JGH. A multi-method multi-analytic approach to establishing internal construct validity evidence: The Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale 2. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 2009. 13: 71-92Google Scholar

  • Hall HK, Kerr AW, Kozub SA, Finnie SB. Motivational antecedents of obligatory exercise: The influence of achievement goals and multidimensional perfectionism. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2007. 8: 297-316.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Hamachek DE. Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 1978. 15: 27-33.Google Scholar

  • Hill RW, Huelsman TJ, Furr RM, Kibler J, Vicente BB, Kennedy K. A new measure of perfectionism: The perfectionism inventory. J Pers Assess, 2004. 82: 80-91PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hollender MH. Perfectionism. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1965. 6: 94-103.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Horney K. Neurosis and human growth. New York: Norton, 1950.Google Scholar

  • Midgley C, Urdan T. Academic self-handicapping and achievement goals: A further examination. Contemp Educ Psychol, 2001. 26: 61-75PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nicholls JG. Conceptions of ability and achievement motivation. In R. Ames, & C. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1984. Vol. 1 (pp. 39-73).Google Scholar

  • Pintrich PR. An achievement goal theory perspective on issues in motivation terminology, theory, and research. Contemp Educ Psychol, 2000. 25: 92-104.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Skaalvik EM. Self-enhancing and self-defeating ego orientation: Relations with task and avoidance orientation, achievement, self-perceptions, and anxiety. J Educ Psychol, 1997. 89: 71-81.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Spray CM, Keegan RJ. Beyond the dichotomous model of achievement goals in sport and exercise psychology: Comment on Elliot and Conroy (2005). Sport and Exercise Psychology Review, 2005. 1: 47-49.Google Scholar

  • Stoeber J, Becker C. Perfectionism, achievement motives, and attribution of success and failure in female soccer players. Int J Psychol, 2008. 43 (6): 980-987.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Stoeber J, Otto K. Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges. Pers Soc Psychol Rev, 2006. 10: 295-319.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Stoeber J, Otto K, Pescheck E, Becker C, Stoll O. Perfectionism and competitive anxiety in athletes: Differentiating striving for perfection and negative reactions to imperfection. Pers Indiv Differ, 2007. 42: 959-969.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Stoeber J, Stoll O, Pescheck E, Otto K. Perfectionism and achievement goals in athletes: Relations with approach and avoidance orientations in mastery and performance goals. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2008. 9: 102-121.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Stoeber J, Stoll O, Salmi O, Tiikkaja J. Perfectionism and achievement goals in young Finnish ice-hockey players aspiring to make the Under-16 national team. J Sport Sci, 2009. 27: 85-94.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Stoeber J, Otto K, Stoll O. Multidimensional Inventory on Perfectionism in Sport. English Version, 2006.Google Scholar

  • Vallance JKH, Dunn JGH, Dunn JLC. Perfectionism, anger, and situation criticality in competitive youth ice hockey. J Sport Exer Psychol, 2006. 28: 326-386.Google Scholar

About the article


Published Online: 2011-01-17

Published in Print: 2010-12-01


Citation Information: Journal of Human Kinetics, ISSN (Online) 1899-7562, ISSN (Print) 1640-5544, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-010-0058-6.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Kristie L. Speirs Neumeister, Kathryn L. Fletcher, and Virginia H. Burney
Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 2015, Volume 38, Number 3, Page 215
[2]
Megan Foley-Nicpon, Susan G. Assouline, D. Martin Kivlighan, Staci Fosenburg, Charles Cederberg, and Michelle Nanji
High Ability Studies, 2017, Volume 28, Number 1, Page 73
[3]
Daniel J. Madigan, Joachim Stoeber, and Louis Passfield
Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2017, Volume 28, Page 120
[4]
Marc Lochbaum, Javan Jean-Noel, Colleen Pinar, and Todd Gilson
Journal of Sport and Health Science, 2017, Volume 6, Number 1, Page 68
[5]
Antonio Méndez-Giménez, José-Antonio Cecchini-Estrada, and Javier Fernández-Río
Aula Abierta, 2015, Volume 43, Number 1, Page 18
[6]
Joachim Stoeber
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2011, Volume 4, Number 2, Page 128

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in